Most women experienced different periods of their lives. vaginal pain. The symptom can occur in diseases of the female genital sphere, as well as in pathological conditions of nearby organs. Therefore, such pain should not be ignored, but you should try to find out the causes of their occurrence and, preferably, not without the help of a doctor.
Vaginal pain can be:
- different in nature, intensity,
- accompanied by itching and burning,
- secretions from the genital tract (mucous, serous, purulent, bloody),
- with a specific smell, or without it.
Vaginal pain during pregnancy
The body of a woman during pregnancy is in a state of immunosuppression (low immunity). This is a kind of physiological adaptive response that contributes to the normal development of pregnancy and the birth of a healthy child. At the same time, a pregnant woman is exposed to various microorganisms that can cause the development of inflammatory diseases, including the genital organs.
- One of the causes of vaginal pain during pregnancy is colpit. This pathology has already been mentioned above. But it should be noted that during pregnancy all the symptoms are more pronounced. Timely access to a doctor, and properly prescribed treatment, prevent the further spread of infection to the placenta and fetus, which is important for the birth of a healthy baby.
- The cause of vaginal pain during pregnancy can be wearing obstetric pessary. It is inserted into the vagina of a pregnant woman with an inferiority of the cervix - the so-called isthmic-cervical insufficiency. Is established in the second trimester in order to prevent preterm birth. The pessary firmly fixes the cervix, and thus prevents its disclosure. Like any foreign body, an obstetric pessary can cause discomfort and pain in the vagina.
- At full-term pregnancy, or close to full-term, in the period of 35-36 weeks, the appearance of pain in the vagina should alert the woman and her doctor - obstetrician-gynecologist. Pain may be due structural changes in the cervixpreparing for childbirth. In this case, it is necessary to clearly know the state of the cervix, to compare with the period of pregnancy, and on this basis to determine the future tactics of behavior of the pregnant woman.
- Pregnant women may experience vaginal pain during having sex, due to a change in the location of the pelvic organs at different periods of gestation.
Why do vaginal pains occur during or after sex?
Painful intercourse can be in the form of acute pain, burning sensation, tingling, scratching, etc.
Acute pain immediately after intercourse, with a feeling of pressure on the rectum against the background of disturbed general well-being, is a symptom of ovarian tissue rupture.
The extreme form of painful intercourse is vaginismus. It is an involuntary contraction of the vaginal muscles. At the same time, penetration of the penis is sharply painful or almost impossible.
Thus, the presence of pain in the vagina should alert the woman, and make refer to a gynecologist. Do not self-medicate or hope that the pain will pass. It is necessary to find out the reason and eliminate it in time.
Which doctor should I contact for vaginal pain?
For any vaginal pain, refer to gynecologist (to sign up), because it is this specialist who is responsible for diagnosing and treating various genital diseases in women. Moreover, in case of genital trauma, you should contact the gynecologist as a matter of urgency, calling an ambulance, or by your own transport when you reach the nearest hospital, where there is a gynecological and surgical department. In addition, it is urgent to call an ambulance and be hospitalized in the gynecological department if an ovarian apoplexy is suspected (sudden sharp pain in the lower abdomen, extending into the vagina and pressing on the rectum, combined with the deterioration of general well-being). In all other cases, vaginal pain (except for suspected ovarian apoplexy and genital trauma) should be referred to a gynecologist in a planned manner to the clinic.
However, it is necessary to know that there are a number of exceptions to the rules when, in case of pain in the vagina, it is necessary to contact not other gynecologists, but doctors of other specialties. A non-gynecologist should be referred to if cystitis, urethritis, proctitis and paraproctitis are suspected.
So, if cystitis or urethritis is suspected, pain passes into the vagina, and is localized in the lower abdomen or in the lower back, combined with urinary disturbance (frequent toilet trips, painful urination, impurities of turbidity, blood, pus in the urine, etc.). In this case, you should contact urologist (to sign up), and in its absence - to surgeon (to sign up).
If proctitis or paraproctitis is suspected, when pain is localized in the anus and rectum, and gives up in the vagina, combined with poor overall health, mucus, blood or pus from the intestine, painful bowel movement, and possibly high body temperature, you should contact to proctologist (to sign up).
What tests and examinations can be prescribed by the doctor for vaginal pain?
For pain in the vagina, the doctor prescribes various tests and examinations, the list of which in each case depends on what disease is suspected on the basis of clinical symptoms. Therefore, it is obvious that the list of tests and examinations always depends on the symptoms associated with pain in the vagina, as it helps the doctor to suggest a diagnosis.
If a woman is worried about pain in the lower vagina, in the area of the entrance to it, combined with discomfort when walking, as well as the presence of a palpable painful seal near the entrance to the vagina, possibly fever, the doctor suspects Bartholinitis and prescribes the following tests and examinations:
- Examination of the external genital organs for the presence of protrusions, pus, etc.
- Feeling the Bartholin gland area with fingers
- Colposcopy (enroll),
- Bacterioscopy and bacteriological seeding of the detachable Bartholin gland to determine the causative agent of the inflammatory process and its sensitivity to antibiotics.
In some cases, bacteriological seeding may be replaced by the determination of the pathogen in the detachable Bartholin gland by the method PCR (enroll)if, of course, the medical institution has the technical capacity to perform these analyzes.
If the pain is localized mainly in the lower abdomen on the right or left, and in the vagina it gives, combines with abnormal vaginal discharge, poor general well-being, pain during intercourse, possibly menstrual disorders, the doctor suspects inflammatory disease of the uterus (metritis), circulatory tissues (parametritis) or uterine appendages (adnexitis), and prescribes the following tests and examinations:
- General blood analysis,
- General urine analysis,
- Vaginal smear on the microflora (enroll),
- Bacteriological seeding of the discharge urethra, vagina and cervix,
- Bacteriological urine culture,
- Ultrasound of the pelvic organs (to sign up).
Usually, all these examinations are prescribed, as they allow not only to diagnose inflammatory diseases of the uterus, ovaries and circulatory tissues, but also to assess the extent of the process, the volume of damaged tissues, and to identify the causative agent of inflammation.
When a woman has constant aching pain inside the vagina, combined with mucous-serous secretions from the genital tract, the doctor suspects cervicitis and cervical erosion, and in this case prescribes the following tests and examinations:
- General blood analysis,
- General urine analysis,
- Vaginal smear on flora,
- Cytomorphological examination of cervical smear,
- Bacteriological seeding of the detachable vagina and cervix to identify the infectious agent and its sensitivity to antibiotics,
- Analysis of blood, discharge of the vagina, urethra and cervical canal for the presence of causative agents of genital infections (to sign up) by ELISA or PCR.
Usually, gynecologists must prescribe general blood and urine tests, a vaginal smear on the microflora, a cytomorphological examination of a smear from the cervical canal, and colposcopy. In addition, in addition to these survey methods, which allow to assess the degree of tissue damage and the severity of the pathological process, choose one method of determining the causative agent of inflammation - this is either a bacteriological culture, or ELISA, or PCR. Each method of identification of the pathogen has pros and cons, but PCR is the most accurate and reliable, therefore, if possible, it is recommended to use this particular diagnostic technique.
If a woman has recurrent vaginal pain before, after and during menstruation, which is combined with pain in the abdomen and perineum, dark bloody or coffee secretions from the vagina, menstrual disorders, increase after intercourse, then endometriosis is suspected, and the doctor prescribes The following examinations and analyzes:
- Bimanual vaginal examination,
- Vaginal smear on microflora,
- Colposcopy with fence biopsy (enroll),
- Hysterosalpingography (enroll) with biopsy sampling,
- Hysteroscopy (enroll),
- Ultrasound of the abdominal organs (to sign up) and small pelvis
- Spiral computer or magnetic resonance imaging (enroll),
- Laparoscopy (enroll),
- Blood test for tumor markers CA-125, CEA and CA 19-9 and RO-test (enroll),
- Blood test for sex hormones (follicle-stimulating, luteinizing hormones, estradiol, etc.).
In practice, gynecologists do not prescribe if you suspect endometriosis at once all of the above tests, but conduct an ongoing examination. That is, at first simple examinations are appointed and carried out, which allow to obtain an overall picture of the disease. Then, depending on the results of the initial study, additional methods of examination are appointed, which allow to clarify all the features of the pathology.
So, first of all, the doctor prescribes a gynecological examination, a vaginal smear on the microflora, a colposcopy with biopsy of suspicious areas and an ultrasound of the pelvic organs and abdominal cavity. These examinations allow us to diagnose the presence of endometriosis and approximately estimate in which parts of the body ectopic foci are located. Further, if there is adenomyosis (foci of endometriosis are located in the thickness of the uterus wall), the doctor prescribes hysteroscopy, as well as spiral computed / magnetic resonance imaging, to clarify the number and localization of endometriotic foci. If the foci of endometriosis are located on the uterus or tubes, then hysterosalpingography is assigned to determine their number and precise localization.
Laparoscopy can be prescribed instead of tomography, hysteroscopy and hysterosalpingography, as it allows you to specify the number, nature, and location of endometriotic foci. Laparoscopy can be purely diagnostic, when only the organs are examined and endometrial foci are detected, or it can be diagnostic-curative, when all identified ectopic foci are immediately destroyed. Currently, most gynecologists with endometriosis prefer to prescribe laparoscopy instead of hysteroscopy, hysterosalpingography and tomography, since this method allows for simultaneous diagnosis and treatment. And hysteroscopy, hysterosalpingography and tomography are used when a woman does not want surgery and wants to undergo a course of therapy with conservative methods (medication).
The study of tumor markers may be appointed when a woman refuses instrumental examinations (ultrasound, colposcopy, etc.), since their level is elevated in endometriosis. In other cases, an analysis for tumor markers is usually not prescribed, because it does not have diagnostic value, but simply duplicates the result of other examinations, indicating the presence of endometriosis.
Blood tests for hormones are usually prescribed to determine the hormonal imbalance, if it is planned to treat endometriosis with hormonal drugs. In this case, knowledge of the levels of sex hormones allows you to choose the best drug for the treatment of the disease.
If a woman has persistent stabbing pains in the vaginal opening area with a debilitating itching, aggravated by friction on underwear or pads, combined with the mild vulnerability of the external genital organs, the doctor suspends vulvar Kouros and prescribes the following examinations and analyzes:
- General blood analysis,
- Blood test for sugar
- Smear and vagina on the microflora,
- Analysis of the discharge of the vagina and cervix for the presence of various types of human papillomavirus (sign up) PCR method
- Immunogram (enroll),
- Cytological smear examination (enroll) and prints from the vulvar mucosa,
- Vulvar biopsy with histological examination of the obtained tissue sample.
Usually, a gynecologist prescribes all the listed examinations and tests for suspected vulvar kriurosis, since they are necessary to clarify the diagnosis, distinguish the disease from other pathologies that occur with similar clinical symptoms (leukoplakia, dysplasia, vulvitis, diabetes, etc.), also to detect possible pre-cancerous or cancerous changes in the tissues of the female genitals.
If a woman feels dull pain in the vagina during intercourse or gynecological examination (book), then a cicatricial change of the vaginal tissues is suspected, and in this case, the doctor performs a thorough examination to determine the scar localization and the degree of change in the normal structure of the vagina. Usually cicatricial changes of the vagina are recorded after postponed suturing of the genital organs, for example, after breaks in labor, after injuries and operations.
If a woman feels nagging pain in the vagina all the time, or they occur during intercourse, gynecological examination, an attempt to insert a tampon, may be combined with prolonged menstruation, pathological secretions from the genitals - the doctor suspects benign or malignant tumors of the vagina, and to verify it checks the genital organs in mirrors, colposcopy with neoplasm biopsy sampling. Sometimes additionally can be assigned vaginal ultrasound (to sign up). Other examinations and tests, as a rule, are not assigned, since the diagnosis is already clear. However, before undergoing surgery to remove a tumor, the doctor may prescribe a smear from the vagina to the flora, blood coagulation test (coagulogram) (enroll) and complete blood count.
If a woman feels persistent, mild pain in the vagina, which may be combined with urinary incontinence and constipation, the doctor suspends the prolapse of the vaginal walls or the prolapse of the uterus. In such a situation, a gynecological examination and ultrasound of the pelvic organs are assigned, which is quite enough to diagnose pathology. If plastic surgery for a prolapse of the uterus or vagina is indicated, and she agrees to surgery, the following additional examinations are scheduled and carried out:
- Hysterosalpingography (to assess the state of the uterus and fallopian tubes, as well as to identify their anatomical location and contours),
- Diagnostic curettage of the uterus (to assess the presence of endometrial hyperplasia, polyps, etc.) (sign up),
- Ultrasound of the pelvic organs,
- Vaginal smear on flora,
- Bacteriological vaginal smear,
- Cytological cervical smear to determine the presence of atypical cells
- Bacteriological urine culture and urinalysis to exclude urinary tract infections,
- Urography (enroll) to eliminate the narrowing of the urinary tract,
- Evaluation of the state of the sphincter of the bladder and anus.
These additional studies are needed to identify possible conditions and diseases that are contraindications for plastic surgery. For example, if as a result of hysterosalpingography or diagnostic curettage of the uterus, endometrial hyperplasia is detected, then a woman is recommended to first treat this pathology, and only then to have plastic surgery. If, according to the results of a cytological smear from the cervix, atypical cells are detected, then the doctor may suggest removal of the uterus with the cervix, since in this case there is a risk of a malignant tumor, and in such a situation plastic surgery is undesirable.If the results of bacteriological seeding of a vaginal or urine smear revealed pathogenic microbes, then the operation should be treated, otherwise after surgery, the risk of infection is very high.
If vaginal pain appears after inserting an object into it (for example, a uterine ring, masturbation devices, tampons, etc.), a gynecological examination should be performed, during which the doctor will remove the harassing object and prescribe the necessary for healing tissue treatment.
If a teenage girl with the onset of menstruation has pain in the vagina of the arching nature, which is present during the whole cycle, and during the period of menstruation they become acute and very strong, then the anomaly of the development of the vagina is suspected. In this case, the doctor must prescribe an examination of the girl's genital organs, ultrasound of the pelvic organs, and tomography to clarify the anatomical location and structure of various structures (vagina, uterus, ovaries, colon, bladder, etc.).
If a woman has persistent pain in the region of the external genital organs and the vagina, which is not combined with other symptoms, and her character may be the most diverse - the doctor suspends vulvodynia. In this case, a wide range of examinations is prescribed to identify possible pathology of the genital, urinary organs and large intestine (ultrasound, hysteroscopy, diagnostic curettage, colposcopy, cystoscopy (enroll), excretory urography, sigmoidoscopy (enroll)tomography, etc.). If the pathology of these organs is not identified, then a diagnosis of vulvodynia is made.
If the pain only gives in the vagina, and is localized in the lower abdomen or lower back, combined with urinary disturbance (frequent toilet visits, painful urination, impurities of turbidity, blood, pus in the urine, etc.), then cystitis or urethritis is suspected, and In this case, the doctor prescribes the following tests and examinations:
- General blood analysis,
- Biochemical analysis of blood (urea, creatinine, bilirubin, total protein, AsAT, AlAT, alkaline phosphatase, amylase, etc.),
- Reberg Trial (enroll),
- General urine analysis,
- Urine sample according to Nechyporenko (sign up),
- Urine sample according to Zimnitsky (to register),
- Bacteriological urine culture,
- Bladder Ultrasound (enroll), kidney (enroll) and ureters through the anterior abdominal wall or rectum,
- Histological examination of biopsy taken during cystoscopy
- Cystography (enroll) (not necessarily held).
In this case, first of all, the doctor prescribes and conducts all of these examinations, with the exception of cystoscopy, cystography and biopsy histology. Cystoscopy, cystography and histology of biopsy are used as additional methods of examination, when it is necessary to clarify the doubtful data obtained during the previous examination.
If the pain gives into the vagina, but is mainly felt in the anus and rectum, it is of any nature, combined with other symptoms (for example, increased body temperature, poor overall health, mucus, blood or pus from the intestine, painful bowel movement and . e.), then pathology of the intestine or peri-intestinal tissue (proctitis or paraproctitis) is suspected. In this case, the doctor prescribes the following tests and examinations:
- Inspection of the perineum, anus and near-canal tissues with the eye,
- General blood analysis,
- Scalologic analysis of feces (with reaction to occult blood),
- Feces on eggs worm,
- Anoscopy (enroll),
- Bowel ultrasound (to sign up) and colonic tissue,
- Rectoromanoscopy with biopsy sampling of affected areas of the intestine,
- Irrigoscopy (enroll),
- Fistulography (to enroll).
First of all, it is mandatory to be examined by a proctologist, a complete blood count, a scorological analysis of feces, feces on the eggs of the worm and an ultrasound are prescribed, since these examinations allow to determine the most likely diagnosis. Further, in case of suspected proctitis, rectoromanoscopy is prescribed with a biopsy of the affected intestinal section. If a narrowing of the intestine is found on the background of proctitis, then an irrigoscopy is additionally prescribed to identify the extent and location of the stricture. If paraproctitis is suspected, anoscopy, a sigmoidoscopy are prescribed, and if there is a fistula, fistulography is also assigned (to determine the length, crimpiness of the fistula and the presence of its communication with the intestine or other organs).
Causes of vaginal pain
Causes of pain in the vagina are very diverse and range from the most innocent to very serious.
Among the most common causes of vaginal pain are:
- Injuries to the external genital organs. Pain in the vagina can occur after damage to the vaginal mucosa on the background of improper douching or aggressive sexual intercourse. Traumatic gynecological manipulations (abortion, diagnostic curettage, cauterization of the cervix, and others) can also trigger vaginal pain.
Sometimes an unsuccessful fall (for example, from a bicycle) or a similar circumstance leads to bruise of the external genital organs. The result is a traumatic swelling or hematoma, they squeeze the nerve endings, causing pain.
- Often, pain in the vagina after childbirth may be due to previous genital breaks in the vulva, vagina or cervix. If these breaks are sutured incorrectly, coarse scar tissue will eventually form in their place, and pain in the vaginal area will disturb the woman many years after giving birth.
- Malformations of the genital organs: the infestation of the hymen, the absence or underdevelopment of the vagina, and so on. As a rule, pain on the background of abnormal development of the external genital organs appear in childhood or during the beginning of the first menstruation.
- Foreign bodies in the vagina are the most common cause of vaginal pain in children. In women, vaginal pains appear on the background of an overly large vaginal swab or uterine ring.
- The omission of the vaginal walls, complete or incomplete prolapse of the uterus provoke painful sensations in the genital area.
- Pregnancy and its complications can cause pain in the genital area. Nearly 60% of women giving birth report pain in the vagina after giving birth of unknown origin.
- A rare cause of vaginal pain can be large benign lesions in the cavity of the vagina - fibromas and cysts.
- Vaginismus - involuntary contraction of the vaginal muscles in response to an attempt at sexual contact and gynecological examination.
- Non-gynecological diseases of related areas: urethritis, cystitis, proctitis, and so on.
- Gynecological ailments of a non-inflammatory nature: endometriosis, vulvar Kraurosis, cervical erosion.
- Inflammatory and infectious diseases of the external genital organs: bartholinitis, vulvovaginitis, fungal and specific infections.
- Dysbiotic states of the vulvar and vaginal mucosa - bacterial vaginosis, dysbacteriosis.
- Neurotic disorders. Sometimes pain in the vagina has no organic cause and is associated with stress or fear.
- Oncological diseases of the genital organs.
- Vaginal pain with an unidentified cause is called vulvodynia. Such a diagnosis is established after an inconclusive thorough search for the true cause of vaginal pain.
The difficulty in diagnosing the causes of vaginal pain lies in the fact that almost all patients cannot specify the exact location of pain, and this is due not only to poor knowledge of anatomy. The region of the external genital organs contains a large number of nerve endings, which transmit to each other or to the endings of the neighboring areas any “signals” of trouble.
The nature of the pain may indicate the most likely cause of its occurrence. A very strong pain in the vagina indicates the development of an acute inflammatory process or injury, and a pulsating pain in the vagina accompanies the formation of purulent inflammation. Often a sharp pain in the vagina or cutting pain in the vagina indicate a condition requiring emergency medical care.
When the patient says that she has a pain “somewhere in the lower part of the vagina”, it may mean that she is in pain in the vulva, the initial part of the vagina, which includes the labia, the eve of the vagina, the clitoris and the urethra. The most common causes of pain in the lower segment of the vagina are various infectious and inflammatory diseases - vulvitis.
Isolated inflammation in the vulvar region occurs predominantly in children, in adult women, all overlying structures are involved in the inflammatory process, and vulvovaginitis develops. Inflammation in the vulva may be accompanied by marked swelling of the mucous and pathological secretions. Patients are worried about aching pain in the vagina of a periodic or permanent nature. In the presence of abundant secretions, a burning sensation may occur (they irritate the inflamed mucous membrane), and with involvement in the inflammatory process of the urethra, there are disorders of urination.
In the area of the subcutaneous fatty tissue of the large genital lips there are two (one on each side) Bartholin glands - the large glands of the vestibule of the vagina. When pathogenic microorganisms enter the excretory duct of the gland, inflammation develops in it - Bartholinitis. The clinical picture of Bartholinitis depends on what microorganisms it is caused by, the state of the patient’s immune system, and the stage of the disease she asked for help. As a rule, the initial stages of the disease are accompanied by dull pain in the vagina and unilateral edema in the region of the labia. Pathological secretions are present if inflammation develops against the background of colpitis (often of a specific etiology). At the next stage of inflammation, an increase in the symptoms of Bartholin gland inflammation occurs. There is a sharp pain in the vagina when moving and walking, feeling worse, may increase the temperature. Some patients clearly indicate when a cutting pain occurs in the vagina or only in the affected area, and instead of a swollen labia, a painful bump appears.
If Bartholinitis is not treated in the initial stages, purulent inflammation develops in the affected area - Bartholin gland abscess. A pulsating pain in the vagina, typical of a purulent process, appears along with an increase in body temperature and deterioration of well-being. Perhaps spontaneous opening of the abscess with the release of a large amount of yellow-green purulent content and improvement of health. However, if there was no adequate treatment, the infection may remain in the body, causing recurrence of bartholinitis.
Chronic bartholinitis causes no clear symptoms. Periodic dull pain in the vagina and unilateral edema in the region of the labia can appear.
Long-existing chronic Bartholinitis leads to the fact that the cavity of the gland is filled with fluid, so a Bartholin gland cyst is formed.
Less common causes of pain in the lower part of the vagina include trauma and swelling.
Vaginal pain during pregnancy
Pregnancy is a normal physiological process programmed by nature. Some women mistakenly believe that any new sensation in the body associated with carrying a child is unfavorable. Meanwhile, most of the changes and sensations in the future mother's body are associated with quite physiological reasons and do not deserve concern. Sometimes a pregnant woman may experience minor vaginal pain that is not a pathology. Almost always, such pain is associated with a regular increase in the size of the uterus and hormonal changes in the body. They are short-lived, they are not accompanied by other disturbing symptoms, they pass on their own, do not affect health, and have no consequences.
Throughout pregnancy, the vaginal mucosa prepares for upcoming events: it increases in thickness, becomes more loose and elastic. With the onset of pregnancy, the composition of the vaginal microflora also changes. Normally, a healthy vagina is 95% “colonized” by lactic acid bacteria. The remaining 5% comes from opportunistic microflora, which, due to the small amount, does not damage women's health. Lactobacilli provide proper acidity of the vaginal environment, which does not allow undesirable bacteria to multiply. Hormonal changes during pregnancy provoke a decrease in the number of lactobacilli in the vaginal mucosa, and opportunistic pathogens take their place. On the one hand, these changes ensure the proper course of future childbirth, on the other hand, they increase the likelihood of injury and inflammation. Pathological pain in the vagina in a pregnant woman appears along with discharge, sensations of itching, burning, discomfort, and urination disorders.
Pregnancy sometimes changes not only the physical condition of a woman, it also affects her psyche: she becomes overly suspicious, sometimes tearful. Against the background of increased psychological vulnerability, pregnant women may develop increased anxiety and fear of losing the child. Vaginal pain in such conditions is psychogenic and has no physical cause. Such a condition, despite the absence of pathology, is not innocuous, as it can provoke premature birth. Timely consultation with a psychotherapist and adequate sedative therapy help eliminate psychogenic vaginal pain.
Vaginal pain in pregnant patients can sometimes be the result of reflected pain in the uterus with a threatened miscarriage or premature birth. Such conditions, along with vaginal pains, are accompanied by other disturbing symptoms: intense pulling pains in the lower abdomen and bleeding.
Self-diagnosis for any pain in the vagina of a pregnant woman should not be engaged.
The pain gives to the vagina
Vaginal pains do not always indicate their true source. Any area adjacent to the vagina can project pain into it. Most often, vaginal pains are the result of the projection of pathological processes in the pelvic cavity. The urinary tract and the rectum adjacent to the vagina have a common system of nerve endings with it, so the pain from these organs can flow into the vagina.
Sometimes pains are projected in the vagina during lumbosacral osteochondrosis.
A distinctive feature of non-gynecological vaginal pain is their combination with other manifestations, which can be suspected of the true cause of pain. For example, in urinary bladder disorders, urination is impaired, and rectal diseases are accompanied by changes in the nature of the stool.
If the gynecological examination of patients with pain in the vagina does not reveal any pathology, the therapist conducts a further search for the causes of vaginal pain.
Stabbing pain in the vagina
The most common causes of vaginal pain are inflammatory diseases, colpitis, vaginitis, etc. As a rule, they are accompanied by stabbing vaginal pains of varying duration and intensity, while being combined with other symptoms of inflammation. Inflammatory processes in the vagina usually do not cause severe and prolonged vaginal pain, many more patients are concerned about the symptoms associated with pain.
Pathological vaginal discharge - the most frequent satellite of inflammatory diseases of the vagina. The nature of whiter with colpitis depends on the source of inflammation. Pain in the vagina with colpitis is associated with irritation of nerve endings with pathological secretions and local inflammation.
In bacterial vaginosis, there are very few lactobacilli and a lot of conditionally pathogenic microbes in the composition of the vaginal microflora. Abundant serous secretions have a characteristic "fish" smell and a liquid consistency. A distinctive feature of bacterial vaginosis is the absence of signs of local inflammation during a gynecological examination.
In candidal vulvovaginitis (candida), yeast-like fungi Candida are the cause of inflammation. Discharge abundant and thick, have a specific "cottage cheese" look. Inflammation of the vaginal mucosa with candidiasis is pronounced, so vaginal pain can be more pronounced and are accompanied by intense itching in the vaginal area and vulva.
Specific infectious processes in the vagina cause a very strong inflammation that can rise to the uterus and bladder. Disorders of urination, burning sensation, and pus-rich discharge accompanied by stinging pains in sexually transmitted infections.
Stitching pain in the vagina may appear in older women. Атрофические изменения слизистых оболочек вульвы и влагалища на фоне завершения гормональной функции яичников приводят к появлению болей, ощущения сухости и дискомфорта и увеличивают риск появления микротравм.
Иногда кратковременные колющие боли во влагалище могут появиться на фоне эрозии шейки матки.
Traumatic injuries to the vagina cause sharp stabbing pains in combination with bleeding.
Pulling pain in the vagina
Vaginal pains of a pulling nature are in most cases associated with a violation of the elasticity of the vaginal tissues, their excessive stretching or abnormal development of the external genital organs.
Structural changes in the wall of the vagina with the subsequent loss of its elasticity can develop against the background of the growth of scar tissue. If previous deliveries were accompanied by serious ruptures in the vagina, in their place after birth, coarse scars of inelastic connective tissue can form. Unfortunately, not always difficult damage to the tissues of the vagina during childbirth can be eliminated without consequences, sometimes pulling pain in the vagina after a traumatic birth, bother the patient almost all her life.
Anomalies of the development of the genital organs signal pulling pains in the vagina during puberty. Most often, fusion of the hymen, narrowing or clogging of the vagina. When the time of the first menstruation comes, the formed blood cannot leave the vagina, it accumulates there, causing increasing pain.
The most common cause of pain in the vagina is the omission of the vaginal walls. The pelvic floor muscles “grow old” with the woman and lose their former strength and elasticity. Under adverse conditions, they lose the ability to hold the genitals in their proper places and begin to shift downward, dragging the walls of the vagina and uterus. In severe clinical situations, with the uterus adjacent organs are displaced - the bladder and rectum.
The omission of the vaginal walls causes their overstretching, there are pulling vaginal pain. If the uterus is involved in the process of displacement, the woman may experience a foreign body sensation. The displacement of the genitals often provokes local inflammatory processes — colpitis, cervicitis, and so on. In addition to pulling pains, the patient is concerned about pathological discharge and discomfort, as well as pain during sexual intercourse.