Uterine bleeding is divided into menstruation, ovulation, implantation and pathological. The latter are classified by type: systemic, functional, organic, depending on the causes. There are some simple signs of how to distinguish menstruation from bleeding. When a deviation is required urgent medical care.
Symptoms of pathological bleeding
A normal menstrual cycle is considered to be a gap between monthly discharge of at least 21 days and no more than 36 days. The duration of bleeding is not longer than a week. The volume of discharge is fixed within 40-100 ml for one menstruation. Sometimes critical days are preceded by PMS. Its signs are weak pain in the abdomen, uterus, lower back, stomach, sacrum, irritability, migraine.
- red (scarlet) or almost black discharge,
- started earlier than 21 days after the last menstrual period,
- more menstrual fluid,
- no particles of detachable endometrium,
- hourly replacement of personal protective equipment (tampons, pads),
- regular cycle failure
- no scanty discharge before bleeding begins.
During menstruation, the opened bleeding is noticed by an increase in the volume of excreted fluid and its hue. Instead of dark red or brown, it resembles scarlet arterial blood. Otherwise, the bleeding may be between months. Its difference in the discharge (scanty, abundant) of red, brown or almost black color begins earlier than 21 days after the previous menstruation.
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding
Pathological abnormal menstruation occurs due to a decrease in the level of sex hormones: estrogen, progesterone, androgen. Bleeding is associated with dysfunction of the endocrine glands, reproductive organs. Adolescent girls are more often exposed to risk, in which the cycle is only stabilized and women who have crossed the 45-year-old age.
Bleeding is divided into anovulatory and ovulatory. The first type is accompanied by weakness, dizziness, shifts in menses. The second type of bleeding - ovulatory, is directly related to the cycle, but the red discharge smears or goes plentifully without a break between the menses. Treat hormonal drugs, returning substances to the rules.
The cause of the pathology before menarche is a neoplasm in the reproductive organs. Bleeding during puberty from 8 to 16 years more often occurs through non-pathological dysfunction of the glands and organs during growth. Often manifested in women as a seasonal form. The main symptom is no ovulation due to hormonal imbalance or disorders in the endocrine system.
- ovarian, pituitary, or hypothalamic dysfunction,
- underdeveloped smooth muscles of the uterus,
- irregularity of hormone production,
- infectious lesions
- excessive mental or mental stress.
To establish the diagnosis and treatment methods, it will be necessary to pass tests for a detailed blood test, including the level of its coagulability, hemoglobin, and the amount of hormones. Then scan the pelvic organs using ultrasound. Based on the data, the correct hormonal support is selected until the menstrual cycle is established. When a pathology is found, the treatment is selected individually.
Reproductive age bleeding
The risk group includes women over 18 years old, but who have not attained premenopause. Frequent causes of pathology are hormonal contraceptive drugs and IUDs (intrauterine devices) that can damage or break through the membrane of the genital organ. Such bleeding is called breakthrough. Profuse appearance (heavy menstruation or discharge) occurs due to abortion, medication, infections, hormonal imbalance and other causes.
In the diagnosis will exclude endometrial cancer, ectopic pregnancy, the threat of miscarriage, the presence of tumors. Treatment of bleeding is aimed at eliminating the pathology (if it is found), removing the helix. The list of medications includes soothing, hemostatic, hormonal agents and vitamin complexes. The remaining therapeutic methods are selected according to the elimination of the specific cause of the disease.
Pathologies are women over 40–45 years old. The main reason is the restructuring of the hormonal and reproductive systems. Vaginal bleeding, if the monthly has already stopped, is always associated with the disease (swelling, inflammation, etc.), so you should not skip routine gynecological examinations.
The diagnosis is made on the basis of laboratory and ultrasound studies. When a polyp is detected, a tumor is possible. If the cause is a hormonal disorder, treatment is aimed at eliminating the pathologies of the endocrine system (thyroid, adrenal glands, etc.).
Occurs during pregnancy or during and after childbirth. Due to obstetric bleeding, many mothers and babies die.
- ectopic pregnancy,
- bubble skid
- varicose veins in the vagina, cervix,
- big erosion
- criminal abortion
- delayed exfoliation of the placenta,
- mechanical injuries of the uterus or its cervix during labor.
Blood loss is acute, massive and causing hemorrhagic shock.
Symptoms and Treatment of Ectopic Pregnancy
The embryo can be implanted in the fallopian tube, ovary, in the cervical canal or isthmus, in the abdominal cavity. Any type of ectopic pregnancy is accompanied by all the symptoms of conception, as with normal fetal development: morning sickness, change in taste preferences, swelling of the mammary glands, delayed menstruation.
- slowly increasing hCG
- a long period of scanty discharge in the form of a daub,
- increasing pain in the area of implantation of the ovum (pulls, cuts, gives point).
Bleeding opens after the growing embryo begins to tear from the inside the tissues and membranes at the point of attachment. You can understand the acute form of the clinic, often ends in death or complete removal of the body, if it is untimely to provide medical care. It is recommended that in the presence of pain, daubs, or other discomfort, contact a gynecologist, get tested, do an ultrasound.
With timely diagnosis, you can avoid surgery by prescribing the drug Methotrexate. It has the property of killing the fetus and resorption of its remnants. Such therapy guarantees the preservation of the reproductive organs. In case of complications, laparotomy or laparoscopy should be performed. Depending on the type of procedure, the duration of the recovery period will differ.
Symptoms and therapy of bleeding in miscarriage
The first symptom of spontaneous abortion is cramping spasms in the abdomen, pain gives to the sacral area. Then there is a daub or profuse uterine bleeding (metrorrhagia). If a woman is quickly helped, she has a high chance of saving the child.
When miscarriage failed to prevent, stop severe bleeding by curettage of the uterus, complementing the conservative (medical) treatment. Often, instead of mechanical cleaning with a curette, vacuum aspiration is used. To avoid curettage, drugs that stimulate uterine muscle contraction are injected intramuscularly.
Early postpartum bleeding
To transfer the process of childbirth to women is difficult. The cause of bleeding can be a rupture of the reproductive organ, cervix, violation of the attachment of the placenta, infringement of the afterbirth, weak muscle tone of the uterus, DIC, delayed intake or overdose of uterotonics. Symptoms: blood comes out with clots, in small portions (pathology is considered if it does not leak, accumulating in the uterus). With a complication, there is an abundant loss of fluid that causes hemorrhagic shock. Sometimes you want to remove the uterus.
Recommendations for bleeding
If a woman is at home, but she is suspicious, it is necessary to call an ambulance. How to distinguish menstruation from bleeding prompted by doctors. After the call, physicians should go to bed so that their feet are on an elevation (above the level of the body) so that loss of consciousness can be avoided. It is recommended to put a heating pad with cold water on your stomach. Prevent dehydration before the arrival of physicians can tea drinking, decoction with sugar.
Any violation will help to determine the gynecological examination, laboratory tests and diagnostics using medical equipment. Often a woman with bleeding is immediately sent for scraping tissue from the walls of the uterus and the cervical canal.
If the patient does not want to give birth anymore, she may be asked to remove the endometrium with an electrode, laser, or electromagnetic energy. The procedure is called endometrial ablation. The third option to stop bleeding is cryodestruction (cold therapy), which has no side effects and is effective.
The doctor prescribes medication only after an examination. Suitable drugs:
- Vitamin C,
- Aminocaproic acid,
Viburnum bark, water pepper, nettle and medicinal plants, which improve blood coagulability and muscle tone of the uterus, have a strong effect. If the cause of the pathology is a hormonal failure, the combined contraceptive means are prescribed orally: Non-ovlon, Diana, Regulon and others. Suitable and Didrogesteron, Norastsisteron, Linestrenod.
The best treatment for abnormalities is to take preventive measures, so as not to seek information on how to distinguish bleeding from menstruation. It is recommended to visit the gynecologist 2-3 times a year for an examination, fully cure diseases, monitor your diet, lead a healthy lifestyle and rationally distribute the schedule of work and rest during the day.
How to determine monthly or bleeding
Every woman who has a healthy reproductive function faces monthly vaginal discharge - menstruation. This natural process of the work of the female body does not alarm and does not frighten a woman if it began in a timely manner and proceeds in a familiar rhythm. It happens so that a cycle failure occurs or menstruation is accompanied by severe pain, discharge is more abundant with large clots and does not stop at the expected time. It is important for such changes to immediately consult a gynecologist to determine the cause that provoked intrauterine bleeding. The article discusses the main types of uterine bleeding, what is dysfunctional uterine bleeding, what is juvenile uterine bleeding, causes of bleeding in menopause, bleeding during pregnancy, profuse bleeding, uterine bleeding due to hormonal OK. You can also find answers to frequently asked questions, for example, how to distinguish uterine bleeding from menstruation, what are the distinctive symptoms and signs of uterine bleeding and how to distinguish them from menstruation, what to do if symptoms and the first signs of uterine bleeding develop. The article describes the answers to basic questions on how to distinguish bleeding from menstruation, how to understand what is going on, menstruation or uterine bleeding, what types of uterine bleeding exist.
Causes of intrauterine bleeding, why there was bleeding instead of menstruation
Uterine bleeding opens due to malfunction of the ovaries, the causes of which are a number of causing factors:
1 contraceptive use, IUD, hormonal and contraceptive drugs,
2 artificial interruption of pregnancy, ectopic pregnancy, miscarriage, surgical abortion,
3 benign neoplasms - fibroids, polyps,
4 malignant neoplasms localized on the cervix, ovaries, in the uterus,
5 neuro-psychological stress, stressful situation,
6 infectious and inflammatory diseases of the reproductive system.
Menstruation (menstruation) or bleeding, how to understand how to determine why there was spotting?
How to understand that this is uterine bleeding, and not monthly? Symptoms and signs of uterine bleeding are different from signs of menstruation. The cause for anxiety during menstruation is caused by copious, with a large number of clots, discharge, when the pad has to be changed more than 5 times a day, the duration of bleeding more than 7 days, persistent pain in the lower abdomen and lumbar region, dizziness, decreased working ability and general physical weakness .
A woman’s normal menstrual cycle ranges from 28 to 35 days. Anything that goes beyond these limits is defined as pathology and requires immediate medical attention to determine the cause of its violation. Abundant scarlet bleeding in the middle of the cycle requires immediate hospitalization. It is necessary to call an ambulance and before her arrival it is recommended to lie on your back, with your legs comfortably above your level. All these phenomena can occur in women and in childbearing age and menopause.
Why there are bleeding, causes of uterine bleeding
The lack of a follicle maturation phase leads to insufficient production of the female hormone progesterone, while another female hormone estradiol continues to be produced and provokes active growth of the inner wall of the uterus. The layer becomes too thick, and the blood vessels do not have time to supply it with blood. For this reason, the inner layer of the uterus dies off and this leads to uterine bleeding.
Types of uterine bleeding, which are?
Types of uterine bleeding depend on the age of women and arise for various reasons.
1 bleeding in a newborn occurs if the mother in the last stages of pregnancy increases the production of estrogen, a hormone that contributes to the development of labor. Through the placenta hormones come to the baby. The reproductive system of the girl who is inside the womb is already capable of responding to the incoming hormone and the epidermis of the uterus begins to grow. After the birth of the ovaries, the girls have not yet begun their activities and do not produce a hormone. The hormone level drops sharply because they do not come from the mother anymore. The uterus reacts to this for 3-4 days in the usual way for it, which leads to bloody discharges. As a rule, the discharge is not abundant, lasts several hours, they do not require treatment.
2 in puberty. Starting from 11 to 12 years, not only physiological changes occur in the girl's body, but hormonal and neuropsychological background is also rebuilt, which leads to disturbances in any body systems. So in the process of puberty disrupted the production of sex hormone produced by the ovaries. This can lead to acyclic bleeding. Call them juvenile bleeding. Avitaminosis, malnutrition, stressful situations, mental disorders, physical and mental fatigue, exacerbated chronic infectious diseases - angina, influenza, tonsillitis, pneumonia, rheumatism can provoke juvenile bleeding. Also, uterine bleeding at this age can be triggered by unfavorable heredity, if the mother or grandmother had a menstrual cycle during the teenage period. As a rule, uterine bleeding is observed after 1.5-6 months from the onset of menstruation in a girl. Short-term cycle failures during adolescence do not require medical treatment. Therefore, with a single manifestation of menstrual disorders, treatment is not required, only the gynecologist's observation of the further nature of the menstrual cycle. Abundant, prolonged bleeding require serious treatment. Ignoring cyclical failure entail serious diseases, including anemia.
3 childbearing period. During this period, uterine bleeding can be triggered by hormonal drugs, infectious and inflammatory diseases of the reproductive system, stress and physical overstrain (hard physical work, weight lifting and exhausting workouts). Also, bleeding can be the consequences of abortion or miscarriage, postpartum and early pregnancy. As a rule, uterine bleeding is accompanied by strong pulling pains in the lower abdomen, giving way to the leg, weakness. When blood discharge occurs, you should consult a doctor to diagnose the cause that provoked the bleeding and to prescribe treatment. As a rule, treatment takes place in 2 stages.
Stage 1 - stop bleeding by curettage, or prescribe hormonal drugs, simultaneously prescribed vitamin complex, stabilizing the work of the ovaries.
Stage 2 - supportive therapy aimed at securing the first stage of treatment in order to prevent relapse.
The period of menopause - during this period, normal bleeding is considered normal if a woman takes hormone replacement drugs. In other cases, this indicates serious problems with the organs of the genital and endocrine systems. It can also indicate cervical cancer, fibroids, polyps, ovarian inflammation. Bleeding is one of the first symptoms of these diseases and can be treated with timely treatment.
Differences of menstruation (menstruation) from uterine bleeding
If a woman does not know how to distinguish uterine bleeding from menstruation. There are a number of distinctive signs that indicate that uterine bleeding has opened:
1 postpartum hemorrhage (lochia). Discharge ended, and a few days later resumed. Postpartum hemorrhage lasts for more than 7 days and the discharge is bright red in color, fluid without clots and accompanied by pain. The normal process of lochia discharge is accompanied by nagging pains in the lower abdomen, as during menstruation, due to uterine contractions, discharge after 2 days changes color to dark brown.
2 vaginal discharge have a sharp unpleasant smell is not typical for menstruation.
3 related symptoms - chills, fever, dizziness, weakness, front sight, tinnitus, severe headache, faintness. All these manifestations may indicate a decrease in hemoglobin due to blood loss and leading to anemia.
4 volume of vaginal discharge requires replacement of gaskets once per hour
5 break between critical days less than 20 days. If a woman did not manage to distinguish between menstruation and hemorrhage, understand that she has menstruation or bleeding from the uterus.
What to do if uterine bleeding appears, when to seek medical help?
If at least one of these symptoms is characteristic of uterine bleeding, it is urgent to call an ambulance. Before the arrival of the doctor must:
1 take a horizontal position, feet should be above the body,
2 on the lower abdomen put cold, after wrapping a towel.
It is recommended to drink herbal hemostatic tea. Pharmaceutical chamomile, rosemary, field ivy, lavender, melissa and mint have good blood-clotting effects.
What secretions can be considered the norm?
In order for uterine bleeding not to be taken as regular menstruation, you need to clearly understand all the parameters that are characteristic of menstrual bleeding, namely, duration, amount of blood lost, general well-being, pain in certain areas, and so on. It should be noted that almost all women have their own calendars of the menstrual cycle, which marks the beginning and end dates of menstruation. This greatly facilitates orientation in the behavior of the organism, and also allows you to meet the new cycle prepared.
Thus, for a healthy girl or woman, the parameters of menstrual bleeding look like this:
1 It is considered normal if menstruation lasts about 3-5 days, but the duration of 7 days is not critical, but it is the threshold after which you should start worrying about your health,
2 The next parameter is the amount of blood that is lost per day. It should be noted that it is quite individual and dependent on a large number of other parameters of the female body. However, still the average rate is considered to be the loss of 20 to 50 milliliters of blood per day. For reference, this volume is equal to a filled pad of maxi format or a full tampon in 3-4 hours. If the filling takes place in just one hour, then the periods are considered abundant,
3 The total volume of blood lost during one period of menstruation should be approximately equal to 250 milliliters. Simply put, for a monthly girl or woman should lose an average of one glass of blood.
4 The normal duration of the menstrual cycle is about 28 days, but in modern realities it can vary from 21 to 35 days.
5 Characteristic of the beginning of menstruation is the appearance of the so-called “daub”, that is, very weak bleeding. After a day the bleeding becomes abundant, having a rich red color. In no case should blood be clotted, and the presence of clots in the uterus mucous membrane is normal. After about three days, the bleeding becomes moderate and becomes dark.
6 The characteristic signs of the onset of menstruation are also the appearance of unpleasant sensations in the mammary glands, pains of a pulling character in the lower abdomen, and variability of mood. These signs appear on a monthly basis, which makes it possible to judge exactly the beginning of the menstrual bleeding, and not any other, even if it does not begin on the calendar.
7 During pregnancy, menstrual bleeding is completely absent. That is why any discharge of blood from the vagina during pregnancy is a warning signal and a reason for additional examination by a doctor.
It should be noted that women go through a complete adaptation after a blood loss much faster than men, since menstruations taught the female body to quickly replenish lost blood volume. After the end of the menstrual cycle, the female body fully launches all the adaptation mechanisms, which leads to the state of all processes to normal.
Juvenile uterine bleeding
This bleeding is typical for girls of young age, especially for those who are in puberty. As a rule, juvenile bleeding is a consequence of disorders caused by diseases of the female genital organs, excessive loads on the female body, lack of vitamins or minerals due to improper or inadequate nutrition. Also, very often juvenile bleeding can occur at certain times of the year and not be accompanied by ovulation.
Uterine bleeding with menopause
Every woman knows that at a certain stage of her life a period of menopause will occur, that is, a certain period of time during which the restructuring of the reproductive system takes place with the loss of its direct function. During this period, the concentration of sex hormones is significantly reduced. That is why a woman closer to old age may experience intrauterine hemorrhage, providing an idea of the appearance of certain pathologies. When a woman reaches the period of menopause, the occurrence of bleeding from the vagina is a signal to immediately contact your doctor.
Uterine bleeding during pregnancy
After fertilization of the egg in the female body, the menstrual cycle and the appearance of related signs are completely blocked. This lock lasts until the birth of the child or the end of the breastfeeding period. The appearance of blood from the vagina during pregnancy indicates serious disorders, so you should immediately seek medical help. However, there are two exceptions that should not cause panic in a pregnant woman or girl:
1 Obstetric hemorrhage, which is a consequence of the onset of labor,
2 Implant bleeding that occurs during the week after fertilization of the egg.
It is important to know that bleeding during pregnancy can be caused by detachment of the placenta from the surface of the uterus or by a rupture of the uterine wall. This threatens both the loss of the fetus and the death of the mother. After the above problems are diagnosed, immediate surgical intervention is necessary.
Bleeding while taking hormonal drugs
This bleeding is also called breakthrough and is characterized by moderation and quick ending. This is primarily due to the adaptation of the reproductive organs to an increase in the level of hormones. As a rule, adaptation lasts no more than two days, during which bleeding may occur, and after it bleeding stops. However, it is not necessary to treat this manifestation condescendingly, since the dosage of hormones in the preparation may be too high for the organism. To prevent problems, you should consult a doctor who will either prescribe another drug or limit the dosage taken.
Profuse uterine bleeding
Profuse bleeding is the most dangerous of all types of intrauterine bleeding. With this type of blood is allocated very abundantly, which may somewhat resemble the discharge during menstruation. This bleeding occurs at the site of ulcers, so it can occur during any period of the menstrual cycle. It is precisely in the abundance of secretions that danger lurks, since in a short period of time a large amount of blood can be lost, which leads to anemia that threatens a person’s life. With the manifestation of this type of bleeding or during menstruation, with a sharp increase in the daily rate of discharge, you should immediately consult a doctor, because in this case, any delay is fraught with disastrous consequences or even death.