Cervical erosion is a very common disease among women, which is associated with a violation of the natural microflora of the cervix. Erosion is a benign formation, which only if it is not treated can lead to cancer. Identify it is very difficult, because there are various reasons for the appearance of cervical erosion. To save your health and reduce the numerous costs of its restoration, you need to visit the gynecologist once a year.
Cervical erosion: causes
This is a very insidious disease that may not manifest itself for years. Very often it can be completely asymptomatic, and the woman will not know about it, because they will think that there is no point at all to go to the gynecologist. But there are some reasons for the appearance of cervical erosion, which you should be aware of and which, if anything, should lead you to a campaign with a female doctor:
- immune changes in the woman’s body (rapid weight gain or weight loss, pregnancy, childbirth),
- infection of one of the TORCH infections,
- breaks after childbirth,
- chronic inflammation (cystitis, inflammation of the ovaries),
- early or late sex life,
- endocrine disorders in the body,
- frequent change of sexual partners.
Types of disease
Like almost every disease, erosion of the cervix of the three types, depending on the degree of tissue damage - light, moderate and severe. In accordance with this, there are several varieties of it:
- Congenital erosion. Occurs in girls in adolescence, can itself pass just as it appeared. The chance that this erosion will turn into cancer is very small.
- True erosion. It manifests itself as a detachment of epithelial cells. Women can learn about it through bloody discharge.
- Pseudo-erosion. This species manifests itself as a displacement of the flat epithelium, the possibility of developing into cancer is almost zero.
Subspecies of cervical erosion
In addition to the main types of the disease, the following are also distinguished:
- Uncomplicated erosion. Most often, this kind of her will not be treated, since over time the uterus itself will be able to renew the affected cells. The only thing here is that no one can say exactly how long it will take.
- Complicated erosion. This is a very dangerous type of disease, as it leads to modification of the cervix, and accordingly, diseases of the adjacent organs.
Sometimes tumors inside the vagina lead to the fact that there is erosion of the cervix. The reasons for their appearance are different, therefore, the consultation of a gynecologist is simply inevitable. But doctors can not take any active actions, except for obvious cases, where medication and surgical intervention are necessary.
Who can have this disease?
The disease can be found in every third woman in the world. Occurrence of cervical erosion provokes a number of factors, so this disease can be diagnosed even in girls who have not yet begun sex life. In such cases, usually we are talking about heredity or a sharp change in hormonal levels. Cervical erosion in births occurs very often, but in many cases with the onset of pregnancy, it disappears and rarely requires treatment before its onset.
In other cases, it may appear due to diseases such as colpitis, endocervicitis. Often, the causes of the disease include too active sexual intercourse, inaccurate introduction of tampons, reaction to mechanical contraceptives.
Erosion during pregnancy
For all pregnant women who are registered in the antenatal clinic, there is a mandatory inspection on the chair - colposcopy. Here and can detect cervical erosion. But every woman in an interesting position should know that no one should treat her before giving birth. An experienced doctor will postpone it for the postpartum period, if there are any reasons. The appearance of cervical erosion, most likely, is associated with sharp changes in the hormonal background of the woman. Hormones will recover after a couple of months, and the disease will pass by itself.
Of course, there are cases when erosion is dangerous. But this is only when it is accompanied by any other infectious diseases of the urogenital system. But even in this case, the gynecologist will prescribe any candles that will reduce the symptoms of erosion. In this way, you can avoid ruptures during labor and then take full treatment.
Manifestation of cervical erosion
According to experts, erosion can not manifest itself for years. You can learn about it only on a scheduled inspection. Only in very rare cases, it happens when cervical erosion hurts. These sensations may be accompanied by purulent-bloody discharge, which will somehow resemble menstruation. Some women may not even pay attention to this, taking this symptom for unplanned periods. Only in the case when the patient is confident that she has any infectious diseases, she will take it as a warning sign. Those girls who are pregnant or just going, bleeding is attributed to the detachment of the fetus and also immediately turn to a specialist.
A woman should be alerted to pain during intercourse, which will also be accompanied by succinic secretions.
Diagnosis of the disease
Every woman who cares about her health will definitely think about what kind of diagnosis is necessary to determine cervical erosion. Everything is very simple: a routine examination by a gynecologist, and you can easily avoid this disease or even begin treatment at an early period.
Since this is a very insidious disease, erosion of the cervix in birthless patients can also manifest itself suddenly. Therefore, every girl, starting at age 16, should be examined once a year by a gynecologist. It includes colposcopy, smear on the flora, cytoscience, HIV and TORCH tests.
When the doctor has done all the necessary research, treatment is prescribed so that cervical erosion is gone. What tests you will need to pass, you will find out from your treating gynecologist. If this is a congenital event, then the course of the disease will simply be observed.
In other cases, experts may refer to the surgical or conservative method. If the patient also has co-infections, they begin treatment with them and prescribe a course of antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs and immune system modulators. There are cases when this treatment does not lead to improved health, then turn to surgical methods:
- Diathermocoagulation. This procedure is assigned to women who have given birth, or to those who do not plan to have a child next year. The procedure is very unpleasant, as it is carried out using electric waves.
- Cryotherapy. Treatment is carried out with liquid nitrogen. But the disadvantage here is that the disease cervical erosion can very soon return.
If the woman was found to have small-sized erosion, then the doctor will simply prescribe a course of candles and necessary medications. Sometimes it can be just a douching. But it is worth remembering that such treatment is designed to restore the natural microflora of the vagina, thereby helping the body heal itself.
Doctors resort to direct surgical intervention extremely rarely, only if all previous methods have not had the necessary effect on the body. Then the oncologist will already be treating the patient. To avoid this, it is not worthwhile to delay the treatment of the disease and timely visits to the gynecologist.
Modern methods of treatment of the disease
The causes of cervical erosion are very diverse, respectively, and treatment will depend on them. First of all, before it starts, it is necessary to conduct a thorough study of the health of the woman. Today, there are several types of them:
- conducting extended colpocervicoscopy,
- biopsy (histology) of uterus cells obtained,
After conducting research, treatment will be prescribed:
- the use of electrosurgical techniques,
- treatment with carbon dioxide and a diode laser.
Only the attending gynecologist, based on the testimony of the patient, can choose the best and least safe option. But it is worth remembering that all methods have both advantages and disadvantages.
In addition to medical and surgical treatment, there is an even more benign remedy for getting rid of erosion. This is traditional medicine. If you have already been to the gynecologist and know exactly the reasons for the appearance of cervical erosion in you, and its cause in the hormonal background, then this option will perfectly help you.
Douching herbs with decoction of herbs will help restore the vaginal microflora and eliminate erosion. To carry out such treatment is also under the supervision of a doctor, otherwise you can kill the whole natural environment and in addition to get more and thrush. But douching is contraindicated for pregnant women, during menstruation, and for girls who have recently given birth or had an abortion.
Recipe number 1. Chamomile decoction.
2 tbsp. l chopped chamomile herb pour 1 liter of water, then boil on a steam bath for about 20 minutes. After this broth should stand 15 minutes.
Recipe number 2. Calendula.
In the pharmacy to purchase a two-percent tincture of calendula. In a glass of warm water, dilute 1 tbsp. l grass. Such a course of treatment should not exceed 10 days.
Recipe number 3. Celandine.
1 tbsp. l Herbs pour 1 tbsp. hot water and leave to infuse for an hour. After that, the grass must be squeezed and filtered. Douching is carried out 1 time in 3 days, not more than 2 weeks.
Consequences of the disease
Some erosion treatments require re-passage. It is necessary to pass it, as the undertreated disease threatens the woman with infertility, various inflammations, hematomas and even bleeding.
Specialists carry out all the methods of treatment as carefully as possible, and they almost always immediately give a positive result - the erosion of the cervix passes. Allocation after treatment will be in any case, in the form of ichor. Sex life at the time of these secretions should stop.
All women who have undergone treatment should be obliged to visit the gynecologist every six months to be confident in their health.
Why erosion of the cervix occurs in almost every second woman - doctors can not give an exact answer. To prevent this disease will only help its prevention, namely:
- timely perform the hygiene of the genitals and make sure that your partner does this too,
- do not tighten up with going to the doctor if you suddenly have a pain in the lower abdomen, burning, unusual discharge,
- once a year, and preferably once every six months, you are examined by a gynecologist,
- use condoms with a new partner,
- if you do not have a permanent partner, and you often change them, you should be aware that such a change leads to a direct decrease in the vaginal microflora, and therefore to erosion of the cervix.
Reviews recovered erosion
Many women who received treatment for cervical erosion were satisfied with the result. Only in some cases they had to re-apply to the doctor for treatment. But this is due not to the fact that the doctor was unable to complete the treatment, but to the fact that it was a complicated erosion of the cervix.
Reviews of births suggest that before birth, in any case, it is not necessary to engage in treatment, especially if the causes of cervical erosion are associated with hormones. It is also worth refusing from surgical interventions and various cauterization. You can try traditional medicine, but the main thing here is not to overdo it. Very often, in women who have already given birth, a doctor may not detect erosion. If she remains, then it is necessary to engage in her treatment. If you have not yet given birth, but the doctor has determined that you have cervical erosion, you can just take the tumor marker once a year and live peacefully until the birth itself.
If you decide to treat erosion before the baby is born, then there may be significant ruptures during the birth, or the uterus may not open. Even doctors often recommend that they do not undergo treatment before the age of 25, especially if the erosion is small, it doesn’t bother you at all and is the result of an infectious disease. In the case of the latter, the doctor may prescribe the treatment of an infectious disease, and then monitor the erosion of the cervix.
What is cervical erosion
To begin, let's understand what cervical erosion is. When we talk about erosion, we mean a wound. This wound is extremely rare. It can be the result of injury from the rough work of a tool or from sexual intercourse. That condition, which is often called erosion, is another. But since the term is frightening, women often think that cauterization or even surgery is necessary in any case. Let's see if this really is.
Look at the photo, it shows what erosion is. A healthy neck is covered with a smooth pink mucous membrane called the stratified squamous epithelium. This tissue is quite dense, has several layers and prevents viruses, including the entry of human papillomavirus, which can cause cancer.
On the cervix there is a cervical canal. It leads to the uterine cavity and is covered with a cylindrical epithelium, which looks fluffy and red. If this tissue extends beyond the channel to the cervix, it looks like erosion. In fact, this is the inversion of the fabric.
Causes of cervical erosion
Some articles state that it may occur due to poor hygiene or infection. However, these factors can only contribute to the maintenance of such a violation of the tissue, but can not be its cause.
Erosion of the cervix may be giving birth and giving birth. The causes of erosion in these cases are different.
In women who have not given birth, the causes of cervical erosion are mainly hormonal disorders or cracks after abortion, and after childbirth - in microparticles of the cervix during childbirth.
So, why does erosion appear?
- Disruption of hormonal balance.
- Tears and cracks of the cervix, which cause eversion of the mucous.
- early (up to 18 years) the onset of sexual activity
- infections (trichomoniasis, chlamydia, ureaplasma, herpes),
- congestion in the pelvis
- frequent change of partners.
At the same time, in girls up to 21-24 years old and without deviations, the cylindrical epithelium of the canal can be located on the part of the cervix that leaves the vagina. That is, erosion can be normal. Every girl has congenital erosion on her neck, which passes only by the end of puberty.
It is especially important to preserve the reproductive functions of nonpartum women. Therefore, it is necessary as carefully as possible to treat the diagnosis. If a woman is going to give birth to a second or third child, then it is also necessary to pay due attention to the preservation of reproduction.
Therefore, knowledge of the causes of mucosal disorders will help to preserve not only health, but also the ability to have children.
Symptoms and signs of cervical erosion
By itself, ESM is asymptomatic - a woman does not feel anything. Symptoms of cervical erosion can be detected only by a doctor. But still you should pay attention to some of the symptoms in which it is necessary to consult a doctor:
- copious discharge from the genital tract, especially yellow or greenish, sometimes with a smell,
- itching, burning, discomfort in the intimate area,
- aching pain in the lower abdomen,
- rash on the genital lips,
- any changes in the external genitals.
These are not direct signs of cervical erosion. But they can indicate the accession of infection and inflammation, which worsens the prognosis of the disease and makes erosion dangerous.
Be sure to contact your gynecologist and perform a smear on cytology at least once every three years. But it is better to do this every year. This will help to identify violations at the earliest stages and in time to carry out treatment.
Diagnose this condition is easy. With a simple examination, the gynecologist will see if there are any such changes.
When diagnosing, it is necessary to take into account not so much the presence of EShM as the state of the transition zone (the places where the stratified squamous epithelium and the cylindrical epithelium, which we talked about above, meet). This is the place where the most dangerous disturbances begin (violation of cell division).
As we have said, once a year it is necessary to conduct a cytological smear. According to European protocols, this can be done 1 time in 3 years. But it is better every year if you can go through this procedure and be sure that everything is in order.
In order to correctly diagnose, it is necessary to conduct colposcopy - the examination of the cervix under a microscope. A biopsy of the cervix during erosion is carried out in cases of suspected dysplasia and other conditions requiring cellular diagnosis. In this case, a piece of tissue is taken and sent to a special laboratory.
Is it dangerous
If you read the article to this place, then most likely you want to know whether cervical erosion is dangerous? Women often think that if nothing hurts, then do not do anything. This is not true.
As we already found out, this condition is caused by the wrong arrangement of a fabric. It would seem that there is nothing dangerous here. But still, if a cylindrical epithelium is located outside, then a stratified and cylindrical epithelium will converge in the vagina. In this place can get HPV virus (human papillomavirus).
Some types of HPV virus is dangerous, it can cause oncology of the female organ. And erosion is the entry point of this harmful agent. In addition, even if this virus does not enter the body, the above infections can also contribute to cervical dysplasia. And this is already the initial stage of improper cell division and leads to tumors with improper treatment.
Factors that increase the risk of exposure to the HPV virus:
- the beginning of sexual life up to 18 years,
- use of oral contraceptives
- smoking (pack or more per day),
- frequent change of partners, unprotected sexual acts,
- if the previous partner of the husband had dysplasia or cervical cancer.
Although in general any woman, especially with a violation of the mucous membrane, can get dysplasia.
You can learn more about what erosion of the cervix and the treatment with oils can be found in the video.
Dear women, attentive attitude to health and timely visits to the doctor will help to preserve health. Remember this and take care of yourself.
With wishes of health and longevity, Elena Muzychenko,
Obstetrician-gynecologist, author of the blog School of Women's Health
I thank Elena for providing us with such necessary and useful information. Also for readers of the blog, I want to tell you that Elena holds webinars that help women regain not only health, but also the joy of intimacy.
On September 19, at 20:00, Elena Muzychenko will hold a very interesting event for women - “The Formula of Healthy Relationships”. This is not a simple webinar, but minitrening for women. You can not only learn all the subtleties of the relationship of health, intimate life and relationships, but also do exercises for training intimate muscles directly with Elena. Participation in the webinar is free for you!
At the webinar you will learn:
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- Intimate gymnastics exercises for beginners.
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And for the soul, we will listen today Michel Pépé - Le Don de Soi .
Is there, in fact, erosion?
Translated from the Latin language "erosio" means "corrosive." For many years, it was believed that erosion is a defect of the cervical tissue (ulcer) that can develop into cervical cancer if it is not cured. And cauterization was carried out to all women in a row. So it was in the time of our grandmothers and mothers.
As time went on, gynecology developed progressively, and the following became clear:
- Cervical cancer without infection with the human papilloma virus is practically non-existent,
- In itself, the presence of erosion does not increase or decrease the likelihood of developing cancer,
- Often, erosion is not erosion at all, but ectopia,
- Ectopia is the migration of cervical epithelial cells from the inside of the cervix to the outer surface,
- Ectopia is not a disease, but a physiological condition of the cervix that does not need to be treated: over time it goes away by itself.
This is a large-sized cervical erosion on the anterior and posterior lip during colposcopy.
Cervical erosion is not a female disease that needs to be treated. This is a variant of the norm. In other words, there is an inversion of cells from the inside to the outside (in medical language this condition can be called ectropion). Paradoxical though it may sound, but if nothing is done with such erosion, it will pass.
Therefore, if you are told that you have found erosion - do not panic, do not rush to remove it and spend money on treatment, the cost of which is often quite high.
We repeat once again that the concept of erosion is outdated, and it is more correct to say ectopia (false erosion or pseudo-erosion). But this term has become so firmly established in our everyday life that it continues to be used not only by patients, but, oddly enough, even by doctors. Perhaps this is due to the lack of information in women. If the patient is told that she has "erosion", then there are no additional questions, because she heard this name from her friends, mother or grandmother. But if a woman is told that she has an ectopia or ectropion, then it is unlikely that she will immediately understand what the doctor is talking about, and also decide that she has discovered something terrible and dangerous.
This is what a large-sized cervical ectopia looks like at colposcopy.
Therefore, doctors still have a long time to eliminate illiteracy among the female population.
The term "erosion" is currently used exclusively for true erosion, resulting from an infectious process, injury or radiation.
How is the cervix?
To clearly understand what is at stake, you need to have minimal information on anatomy and know how the organ we are talking about is arranged.
So, that part of the cervix, which is located in the vagina and which the doctor sees during a gynecological examination in mirrors, is quite logically called the vaginal part of the cervix. Inside the cervix, there is a cervical, or cervical, canal that opens into the uterine cavity. In the cervical canal there are two physiological constrictions - this is the outer and inner throat. The outer mouth opens into the vagina. In nulliparous women, it is rounded, and after giving birth it takes the form of a transverse slit. Internal pharynx opens into the uterine cavity. The cervical canal contains mucus, the main function of which is to prevent infection from the vagina into the uterine cavity.
The structure of the cervix.
Outside the vaginal part of the cervix covers a stratified squamous epithelium. The word "multi-layered" says that it consists of several layers of cells. Thus, it has a significant (of course, by microscopic measurements) thickness and performs a protective function. The mucous membrane of the neck, covered with a stratified epithelium, has a pale pink color.
Inside the cervical canal is a cylindrical, or glandular, epithelium. It is more subtle and delicate, consists of one row of cells, and blood vessels translucent through it give it a red color.
The cylindrical epithelium has a completely different function - to produce mucus. The cylindrical epithelium is hormone-dependent: when there are many female sex hormones, it produces liquid mucus, and when it is small, it is thick. This invention was invented by nature for conception: through the liquid mucus spermatozoa very easily penetrate the uterus, are found with the egg, and fertilization occurs. This quality of mucus is observed during ovulation. At other times, the cervical mucus is thick, viscous, its protective function - no infectious agent can penetrate the uterine cavity and cause inflammation.
The zone where two types of epithelium meet, is called transitional, or transformation zone.At different age periods of women, this zone is located at different levels, which depends on the stage of development of the female reproductive system.
So, in newborn girls, virgins, the joint zone is located on the outer cervical surface. In this case, talking about congenital erosion.
Histological structure of different types of cervical epithelium (in women of reproductive age and in menopause).
During puberty or during pregnancy, when there is a high level of sex hormones in the female body, the cylindrical epithelium begins to quickly “creep out” from the cervical canal and is located around the external os, a red spot is formed in this place. The same can happen if a woman takes hormonal contraceptives.
As the girl grows up, the girl's hormone levels decrease, the stratified squamous epithelium begins to push the cylindrical into place - into the cervical canal, and the joint zone moves closer to the outer throat.
With age, the border of two epithelia is completely hidden deep in the cervical canal, which makes it invisible. Therefore, in women of the older age group, ectopia no longer occurs.
How is erosion manifested
To more fully and clearly understand the causes of cervical erosion, it is necessary to recall the anatomy of an organ. The uterus is hidden inside the pelvis and is the completion of the genital tract, and consists of the bottom, body and neck, the most narrow part of the body. It connects the vagina and uterus, inside there is a channel. The walls of the neck consist of three layers:
- outer epithelial (when viewed under magnification, dense rows of densely closed cells, normally located in several layers, resembling cells of the mucous membrane of the vagina, painted in pink are visible),
- the inner layer of circularly arranged muscle fibers, which allow the uterus to be sealed,
- the cylindrical epithelium of the cervical canal, located in one row and consisting of red cylindrical cells. The purpose of the cells is to produce mucus, which is covered inside the neck.
When the doctor makes a diagnosis of cervical erosion, it means that he sees in the gynecological mirror red areas of damage on it. Sometimes doctors diagnose “erosion” as referring to certain gynecological pathologies (cervicitis and others), which leads to incorrect informing of the patient.
What is cervical erosion and how does it look? A closer look (under magnification) can be seen:
- scratch-like damage,
- the zones covered with a cylindrical velvet epithelium of red color,
- red ring epithelium.
Accordingly, mucosal lesions are distinguished:
- true erosion, manifested by thinning, scratches and wounds on the mucosa, which bleed when pressed,
- pseudo-erosion or ectopia, in which zones overgrown with velvet epithelium are visible on the mucous membrane,
- ectropion, which is formed due to the displacement (inversion) of the neck out.
Damage occurs due to various reasons, so erosion is divided into:
- not complicated.
The doctor, determining in women the erosion of the cervix does not concretize what kind of erosion, why it appeared.
What happens with the disease?
Thinning and trauma to the mucous membranes of the cervix may be superficial and not penetrate to the lower, underlying layer of the epithelium. This condition occurs with true erosion of the uterus and is rarely diagnosed. If the condition is not complicated by infection, the epithelium will recover within 14-15 days. This is the ideal course.
In some cases, the damage is capable of disrupting the base layer of cells and the lesion is not closed by the epithelium of the "correct" consisting of several layers of flat cells, and is covered with red cylindrical cells that are characteristic of the cervical canal. They are located in one layer and have a different function - to produce mucus. The lesion may overgrow, in its place scars are formed, which reduce the elasticity of the neck. This violates its natural properties of the maximum stretch during childbirth and can complicate their flow. The processes of destruction of the cervical epithelium have one feature - in most cases they are accompanied by inflammation of the internal genital organs.
Why it needs to be treated
Emerging defects in the mucous membranes of the cervix - evidence of violations in the body of a woman who needs to be sought. If inflammation diseases are the background of erosion, they should be treated, especially if they are genital infections or systemic venereal diseases. Proper determination of why erosion of the cervix appears in a particular woman is the key to successful treatment. By itself, such a violation is not a provocateur for the development of cancer, but may be the background for their occurrence, as it weakens the body.
Internal causes of erosion
One of the forms of erosion is innate. Visually, the doctor observes the displacement of the natural border between the pink epithelium of the cervix and the red "velvet" epithelium of its internal channel. The defect is not felt by the woman, does not pull any pathologies in the development of the genital organs and to the full maturation of the woman’s body (by the age of 25), passes without a trace.
The exact cause of just such a scenario of mucosal formation is unknown, but it is considered that the cause of this is the displacement of the hormonal background of the fetus during its formation. There is also a congenital form of ectopia (pseudo-erosion), when the red epithelium "crawls" into the pink areas of the vaginal part of the cervix.
The main causes of the internal nature, causing the destruction of the mucous layer of the epithelium of the cervix, the following:
- reduced immune defense of the body
- lesions of the mucous membrane of the neck (injury) by direct exposure,
- hormonal disorders of the body,
- inflammatory diseases of the reproductive organs,
- discharge from the uterus,
- psychosomatic factors.
Hormonal jumps accompany a woman at all major stages of development - from the formation of the genital organs in the embryo to its release from the reproductive state. Very often, erosion of the cervix occurs during such periods - during pregnancy, in giving birth, during breastfeeding, when entering into menopause.
But it is obvious that the factor itself is not the leading one, but acts in combination with others - hormonal surges weaken the body and drastically reduce the level of the body’s immune defense.
Violations of the hormonal background are caused by inflammatory diseases of the ovaries, a tumor that appears on them, too soon, or, conversely, a late pregnancy.
The hormonal factors include dysfunctions of the thyroid gland and a decrease in the production of estrogen, which causes erosion. Manifestations of such hormonal disorders are menstrual dysfunction. In some cases, the cause of "hormonal storm" is a specific treatment - in the treatment of infertility, during the preservation of pregnancy, in the treatment of hypothyroidism.
The hormonal factor is considered leading when pseudo-erosion occurs.
If hormonal changes have become the leading cause of the disorder, then with the normalization of hormonal background, we can expect the restoration of mucous membranes without surgical treatment.
Clinical observations show that cervical erosion may occur on the background of inflammatory diseases of the genital organs, especially often - endocervicitis. In this disease, the activity of the glands located in the mucous membranes of the cervix increases, which leads to its vulnerability and inevitable damage.
The appearance of inflammations is closely related to external causes - violations in sexuality and personal hygiene and internal ones - a decrease in the protective function of the body due to various reasons is not able to stop the reproduction of pathogenic self-conditioned pathogenic flora and the partner's introduced pathogenic flora.
There are the following types of erosion upon occurrence:
- inflammatory, which is caused by rejection of the epithelium, which is provoked by diseases of the cervix uterus - colpitis and cervicitis,
- malignant, caused by cancer,
- specific, provoked by pathogens of syphilis or tuberculosis.
Discharge from the uterus
With the development of pathologies inside the uterus - myoma growths, polyps and endometrial defects, a process of permanent tissue destruction occurs, which is provoked by discharge from the uterus. The prolonged effect of these excretions provokes true erosion. The affected area is colonized by pathogenic microorganisms that provoke an inflammatory process. The development of pathogenic flora (trichomonads, chlamydia, HPV) cannot be suppressed by the woman’s body due to a decrease in the immune defense caused by the constantly occurring process in the uterus.
Disruption of the body’s immune defenses
Reducing the protective barrier of the body - one of the key causes of the violation. It is influenced by many external and internal causes - from living in adverse conditions, ending with the presence of systemic inflammatory diseases in the body. In a weakened state, the body cannot control and suppress the conditionally pathogenic flora and repel the environmental aggression, which causes erosion of the uterus (neck).
Strengthening the body's immune defense is one of the components in the complex treatment of erosion.
Damage to the neck, which provoke erosion, can occur during medical manipulations - during curettage of the uterus, in the process of abortion.
The neck may be injured during the installation of the intrauterine device, in the process of heavy labor with ruptures of the neck. Impairment of the functioning of the epithelium occurs when improperly stitching such damage. One possible reason would be rough sex or the use of sex toys by a woman.
There are the following types of erosion by reason of:
- traumatic, which is formed regardless of the type of injury,
- trophic - arising after exposure to mucous membrane irradiation in the treatment of malignant tumors,
- Burn - triggered by exposure to drugs, chemicals or medical devices during treatment.
Such a factor in the development of erosion is not completely proven, but many practitioners share the theory of the psychosomatic factor, as the "hook" of pathology. The study of the causes of the pathologies of the body’s activity as a result of a psychological disorder that has occurred is dealt with by a special branch of medicine - psychosomatics. It is believed that the negative psychological state of a woman, triggered by the emotional background caused by trauma, and the conditions of life provoke a number of serious gynecological pathologies:
- ovarian tumors and cysts,
- growths in the uterus,
- failures of a menstrual cycle and PMS,
- sexual dysfunction
- neck erosion,
- spontaneous abortion,
- inability to conceive.
Doctors S. Konovalova, V. Sinelnikov, O. Torsunova studied the influence of the psychological state of a woman on erosion. In their works it is noted that the state of the main reproductive organ, the uterus, is closely connected with the thoughts of a woman about her place in the world. A woman’s rejection of her behavior, appearance, lack of warm, emotional relationships with a partner provokes the suppression of femininity and affects the body's hormonal background, which causes erosion.
It also appears as a result of a woman’s rejection of her relationship with a partner, disbelief in her attractiveness and value. Problems with wounded, due to negative relationships with men, self-esteem, the inability and inability to become a wife, mother provokes disturbances in the functioning of the body and the resulting erosion. The starting factor in a negative emotional state is a quarrel, a strong offense (which she cannot forgive), anger and aggression towards men.
It is this condition that can explain the occurrence of the disease in women and girls who did not know sexual contacts at all or very rarely have them.
Treatment of cervical erosion is impossible without the settlement of the psychological state of a woman. She needs to part with a load of insults and forget the insults inflicted by men. If the cause of the depressed state is abortion, then the woman should reconsider her attitude towards people and the world.
In order to eliminate the disease, a woman needs to revise her attitude towards erosion as a warning state that encourages lifestyle changes.
External factors of the disease
External factors that provoke a condition include:
- sexual intercourse too rare
- early onset of intimate relationships
- promiscuous sex and frequent change of partners, which leads to disruption of the microflora of the vagina and infection with sexually transmitted infections,
- living in an environmentally unfriendly environment
- eating disorders - fasting, overeating, eating foods that contain preservatives,
- use of hormonal contraceptives, which can cause cervical erosion (as long as there is no exact clinical evidence).
When erosion appears against the background of absolute health and for no apparent reason, doctors associate the process with unrevealed physiological processes in the body, without recognizing the role of a psychological factor at this stage.
Causes of recurrence of erosion
Repeatedly, the condition of the disorder on the cervix occurs under the same conditions as for the primary lesion:
- disorders of the immune and hormonal status,
- infections and inflammations
Relapse may be associated with incorrect diagnosis and treatment of the disease, premature termination of treatment. Infection with sexually transmitted diseases or genital infections provokes the return of the disease. Such repeated infections often appear on the background of non-synchronous treatment of sexual partners, which according to the rules should be carried out simultaneously in a man and a woman.
For the treatment of the condition, in addition to the use of conservative therapy, it is necessary to change the lifestyle, eliminate the causes of nervous breakdowns, reconsider the diet and nutrition pattern, adjust the intimate life, bring the body to a good shape with the help of physical education and sports. Erosion needs and can be treated.
What is erosion?
Erosion is called damage to the epithelium of the cervical canal or violation of the integrity of the surface layer on the cervix from the vagina, not affecting the walls of the genital organ. Visually, the disease looks like a wound surface or an ulcer.
Very often in gynecology, any modified portion of the uterine cervix, discovered during the examination, is called "erosion." And this is justified, because the pathology, although benign, can trigger oncological processes without proper treatment and with certain factors, which will develop into a malignant neoplasm.
This is a very common female disease. According to statistics, it is diagnosed in girls in 50% of cases. Erosion is a wound site that exists on the mucous membrane of the cervix for a short time. After a few weeks, the surface heals completely, but if negative factors interfere with the process, the healing does not work properly, and ectopia or pseudo-erosion occurs at the wound site. Consider the types of erosion in more detail.
There are the following types of cervical erosion:
- congenital ectopia. In the mirrors, the gynecologist will see a small erosion of a round shape, bright red. It manifests itself in adolescents and at a young age. This is the only kind of pathology that can pass without additional treatment. The risk of malignant degeneration in this case is minimal,
- true erosion. In this case, the surface of the stratified squamous epithelium of the cervix is strongly eroded. In the mirrors, the doctor sees a bright red area up to 1 cm in diameter around the external pharynx of the uterus with clear edges. Slight erosion after 1-2 weeks goes into ectopia. These types of erosion are also slightly prone to malignancy,
- ectopia, pseudo-erosion or false erosion. This is a disease in which cells of the squamous epithelium are replaced by cylindrical. It may be located near the external pharynx, usually on the back lip. Externally, this is a red area. Great erosion can exist for months and even years. Alone without treatment, she can not pass. If there is no cell atypia, ectopia rarely turns into a cancerous tumor, but the probability of malignancy is significantly higher in women with the HPV virus high oncogenic risk (16, 18, 31, 33).
Depending on the structure of the eroded area, pseudo-erosion can be of several types:
- papillary. With such varieties there is a proliferation of tissues in the form of papillae with inflammatory processes,
- glandular (follicular). There is a development of the glands of the prismatic epithelial layer, which actively secrete mucus,
- glandular papillary. This form has signs of both previous ectopias,
- cystic In this species, epidermization occurs, blocking the glandular ducts, because of which the mucous secretion does not come out of the glands and a cyst is formed. Further inflammation develops, and the cervix may be infected.
Stages of the disease
Now we will consider the main stages of the development of the true type pathology:
- Inflammation. At this stage, the pathogen of infection penetrates the epithelial layer of the uterine cervix. Initially, microorganisms attack this organ, then leukocytes begin to accumulate intensively in the affected area, which causes swelling and subsequent exudate to the vaginal cavity. This fluid can be either serous or purulent. Next, the cells intensively divide and grow, forming a defect. This degree without treatment goes to the second.
- The formation of the wound surface. The integumentary epithelium is destroyed and a wound is formed without proper therapy, in which tissue cannot heal for a long time.
- Progression of the wound surface without the necessary treatment leads to ectopia, when erosion does not heal properly, being covered with cells of the cervical canal. At this stage stratified squamous epithelium replaces cylindrical monolayer cells.
Have no birth
Statistics claim that many girls and young women may develop erosion as a result of congenital anomalies, the formation of which occurred even in the womb. Also, the appearance of this disease can be caused by viruses and microorganisms that also affect the hormones of a woman.
We present the most common factors that provoke the formation of pathology in non-giving patients:
- hormonal disorders. When changing the level of progesterone and estrogen, menstruation failures and the integrity of the epithelial layer may occur,
- mechanical damage. These include stormy sex, intense douching and inept use of tampons,
- some oral contraceptives especially those taken without a doctor's prescription may cause ectopia,
- reduced immunity cannot fight infections that activate inflammatory processes and provoke disturbances in the structure of the epithelium.
Significantly increases the risk of developing pathology in women who have early sex life, have a large number of sexual partners and do not follow the rules of personal hygiene.
You should also be careful and regularly visit the gynecologist to the representatives of the fair sex who have recently undergone radiation therapy.
The appearance of ectopia before childbirth can be triggered by injuries, viruses, inflammatory processes and hormonal disruptions, and that's why there is a disease in giving birth, we consider next.
The main causes of deformation of the epithelial layer of the cervix after childbirth are as follows:
- infectious pathologies that need to be addressed along with the affected area,
- breaks that occur during childbirth, if the child is large and difficult to pass through the birth canal,
- preterm or late delivery,
- improper stitching at breaks.
There are situations when an obstetrician does not notice a rupture when stitching and leaves it untreated, in this case the tissue grows together incorrectly and postpartum erosion occurs.
The development of pathology contributes to getting into the affected area of bacteria, viruses and fungi.
Pregnancy is a great time for every woman, but this condition is associated with a lot of changes in their body. Banal stresses, infections and injuries during this period can trigger the development of a variety of pathologies, including erosion. At this time, it also occurs due to hormonal changes or due to an increase in the size of the uterus.
The development of pathology occurs at the physiological level, which in very rare cases can cause uterine reversal. Ectopia can also occur during the child's birth due to the penetration of infections, the development of inflammatory processes, improper douching, poor hygiene and rough sex.
When to do
To visit a gynecologist, you do not need to wait for the appearance of uncomfortable symptoms, because most gynecological pathologies in the initial stages that respond well to treatment are asymptomatic. It is best to go on scheduled inspections, then erosion may show up at the very beginning of its development. If, however, the planned examination is far away, but the following symptoms appear, medical diagnosis is required without fail:
- spotting between menstruation,
- contact bleeding, usually after intercourse or douching,
- pain and discomfort during sex,
- purulent discharge from the vagina.
Similar symptoms indicate the presence of an inflammatory process and an infectious disease that has developed against the background of ectopia. In such cases, you should immediately consult a doctor.
How to prepare
The procedure for diagnosing erosion is absolutely no different from the usual gynecological examination.
A woman needs to take a shower, wear clean underwear and take a gynecological set with her before visiting a doctor. In private clinics, additional funds for the examination are not required. During the examination on the gynecological chair, the doctor may detect redness or bruising on the external pharynx.
During any gynecological examination specialist takes a smear on the microflora, such an analysis is mandatory at each visit to the gynecologist. The result of the smear allows you to assess the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in the woman's vagina. Such screening is carried out before abortions, scraping and other surgical interventions.
A primary examination allows you to determine the type of pathology, but treatment can only be prescribed based on the results of additional studies.
An essential part of the diagnosis of any gynecological disease is testing.
Now we will briefly consider what tests should be done if uterine cervix is suspected. This is a general list of which study to assign specifically, can only determine a specialist. Consider the mandatory laboratory tests that need to be tested for ectopia:
- smear on flora. The doctor makes the material intake during the initial examination. The results of the analysis will be known the next day. This type of research, although the most affordable, allows you to accurately detect the presence of the inflammatory process,
- smear on oncocytology. The material is taken during the biopsy. To prevent oncology, such a smear should be taken annually to every woman. For girls with HPV, polyps, HIV, this analysis should be taken every six months,
- tank sowing. This analysis allows to identify specific pathogens of inflammatory processes, and also determines the sensitivity of the environment to various groups of antibacterial drugs,
- PCR. This analysis indicates the root cause of the disease by determining the DNA of the pathogen. The material for the study is a small piece of the affected area, the result is known during the day,
- ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). This analysis allows you to determine the type of infection that caused the disease. Antibodies and infectious agents are detected in the patient's blood. In addition to the presence of erosion, the extent of the infection process can be determined.
This examination is carried out using a special optical device, which increases the study area hundreds of times. A colposcope is inserted into the vagina and assesses the condition of the cervix, determines the pathologies present, the most affected part of the epithelial layer, from which a biopsy can later be taken for further study.
To the result of colposcopy was the most reliable, the woman on the eve should not have sex, douche and use vaginal tablets and suppositories.
The procedure itself does not take even 20 minutes; in some cases, the use of an additional reagent, for example, acetic acid, a 5% solution of silver nitrate or iodine, will help to get a clearer picture. After exposure to these substances, the healthy epithelium changes its color, and the affected remains unchanged.
Biopsy allows you to determine the degree of tissue damage in the uterus and its tubes. During colposcopy, the most modified frequent mucosa is determined, from which material is taken. There are several types of this procedure:
- loop type. It is carried out by a special device connected to the mains, which excised a small piece of the affected epithelium. The wound at the cut point is immediately burned by an electrical impulse,
- using cochtonom - these are special nippers with which the gynecologist pinches off a piece of damaged tissue,
- a scalpel. This is the most informative method, but it requires hospitalization of the patient. After excision of the piece at the incision site, the doctor must stitch up. Manipulation requires certain skills from the gynecologist.
Thanks to the biopsy, it is possible to determine the presence of a malignant process with an absolute guarantee and develop an effective treatment regimen. But this research method has a number of absolute contraindications:
- problems with blood clotting,
- inflammatory process in the acute stage.
A biopsy is not prescribed for uncomplicated ectopia and with good data colposcopy and other tests.
Symptoms and signs of the disease
A small wound could form on the mucous membrane of the uterine cervix, a woman may not even guess. It is simply impossible to determine the erosion by pain in the initial stages, since it is absolutely not painful for a woman in a normal state.
The first signs of erosion of the uterus, including lower abdominal pain and bloody discharge, may appear after sex, when lifting weights and after heavy physical exertion. This daub has nothing to do with menstruation and is not tied to the day of the cycle.
If an inflammatory process develops against the background of this pathology, the symptoms of cervical erosion will be pain in the lower abdomen, lower back and discomfort during urination and sex. Также воспаление можно распознать по наличию гнойного запаха от выделений и по их желтовато-зеленому цвету.
A characteristic manifestation of an infection that has developed on the background of ectopia, which is sexually transmitted, is frothy or cheesy discharge with a disgusting smell and a greenish tinge. Such symptoms can occur when vaginal dysbiosis, which was triggered by antibiotics, regular douching with the use of antibacterial agents and erosion.
The advanced stage of the disease is manifested by abundant thick linen, with bloody impurities and fetid odor, which are complemented by nagging pain in the lower back and lower abdomen. Most often, an ectopia affects a large area and, without proper treatment, it can turn into leukoplakia (compacted white spot) or erythroplakia (bleeding red ulcer).
In the initial stages of the disease, the excretions do not have a specific smell and color, but neglected erosion can significantly change the characteristics of the secreted secretion.
Consider how the presence of erosion can affect the color and consistency of discharge:
- brown or bloody secretion suggests mucosal lesions, mechanical injuries, and inflammation of the endometrial layer. This color of discharge occurs when ectopia turns into true erosion,
- Cheesy whites with a fermented milk smell occur when additional diseases join the pathology. Such secretions is characterized by thrush,
- yellow secret is released in the presence of infectious pathogens, which may be staphylococcus, ureaplasma, etc.,
- greenish discharge with a strong odor can be a sign of an inflammatory process. If they become thick, a similar reaction may cause suppuration caused by Trichomonas, gonorrhea or colpitis.
If any of the above types of discharge occur, it is necessary to consult with your doctor without fail.
After postponed labor
If ectopia appears after postponed labor, its symptoms are no different from other cases.
Abnormal discharges and nagging pains in the vaginal area may also occur, but during the postpartum period it is very difficult to recognize the symptoms of this pathology.
The following factors can provoke the development of erosion after birth:
- complications in the process of delivery,
- insufficient opening of the uterine cervix, which provokes tears,
- rapid delivery, especially in cases where the child has a large head or he has a large size.
In a girl who does not give birth, erosion can be manifested by scant bleeding, which is not associated with menstrual and painful sensations in the vagina and in the lower abdomen. During a routine gynecological examination, the doctor can determine the presence of erosion and prescribe treatment after certain tests.
Naked girls are not prescribed cauterization by electric current, so as not to leave keloid scars and not to reduce the elasticity of the neck. If the cervix loses its elasticity, it will not open up sufficiently during labor and this will lead to serious ruptures. In modern medicine there are many other methods to eliminate this pathology, which will also be effective and safe for those who have not given birth.
If ectopia is detected during pregnancy, then treatment is often postponed for the postpartum period, since this ailment does not affect the gestation process or the fetus itself. Throughout the pregnancy, the doctor monitors the patient's condition and may prescribe a sparing therapy if necessary.
If a pregnant woman has experienced pain, erosions in the perineum and scanty bleeding, due to erosion, the gynecologist may prescribe a therapy that will relieve the painful symptoms, slow down the development of the disease and prevent inflammation.
There are cases when after the birth of a child erosion passes by itself, otherwise, special treatment or surgery is prescribed.
Cauterization though old, but very effective method of struggle with the modified epithelium areas. Electric current can completely destroy the upper layer of the affected area. This procedure is painless, it is necessary to carry out it once.
After cauterization, scant serous secretions often occur, which can be observed until the mucosal surface is completely healed. If the secret began to stand out more intensively, the wound surface should be treated with a disinfectant.
Before the procedure, it is necessary to eliminate all existing infections, as it is not recommended to give birth.
What is dangerous pathology
In itself, erosion does not pose a particular danger, both for women and for men, with whom they live an intimate life. But this pathology rarely occurs without complications, if you do not treat ectopia, against its background many other more dangerous diseases can develop.
Complications during erosion can occur when developing against the background of the main pathology of infections and inflammatory processes. It is they, and not ectopia, that can lead to serious consequences and to the deterioration of women's health, including problems with conception and infertility in women who have not given birth.
Many people think that ectopia can develop into cancer, such a situation threatens only if atypical changes occur, which are easy to detect during colposcopy and according to relevant analyzes.
If a disease is diagnosed in the presence of pregnancy, you should not worry too much, often ectopia passes after childbirth, but in any case, this pathology has no effect on pregnancy.
Is treatment necessary?
Many impervious women believe that ectopia does not need to be treated, as this may adversely affect their health later.
For modern gynecologists, the question of whether or not to treat this pathology is not worth it, it must be promptly eliminated even in women who have not yet learned the joy of motherhood.
Previously, there were no safe treatment tactics for birthless, and the available technologies led to rigidity of the cervix and, consequently, to the need to give birth through a caesarean section.
The modern method of treatment of erosion allows to get rid of the problem even to women who have not borne them, causing them minimal discomfort and consequences. And ignoring the disease can trigger the development of serious complications, the main of which are cancer and infertility.
How and what to treat erosion
Far from every woman knows what to do when erosion is detected. Immediately it should be noted that there are various methods of treatment of this pathology, so only a doctor can decide how to treat ectopia in each particular case. In some situations, a systematic control of the woman’s condition can be dispensed with, in other cases, medical treatment may be needed, and at more serious stages, erosion is treated only with surgery.
For the treatment of cervical erosion to be as effective as possible, it is necessary not only to determine the cause of its occurrence, but also the presence of background diseases.
The condition of the uterine cervix can worsen hormonal changes and endocrine diseases, which also require mandatory treatment. If hormonal dysfunction is detected, then hormonal drugs are prescribed symmetrically with the treatment of ectopia to eliminate excess estrogen and normalize the menstrual cycle. Most often, combined oral contraceptives are prescribed.
True erosion is treated carefully, for this I use drugs of mild action. Swabs with sea buckthorn and paraffin oil, as well as antibiotic-saturated emulsions (Levomekol, Levosin) are applied to the wound surface. In parallel, inflammatory processes are eliminated, because without treatment of cervicitis, endocervicitis, colpitis, endometritis, etc. pseudo-erosion and erosion heal more slowly and often recur.
The most effective drug today is Solkovagin, after it has been treated, a film is formed on the affected mucous membrane, which is eventually replaced by normal squamous epithelium cells.
If surgical therapy is prescribed, the condition of the vaginal microflora is necessarily pre-stabilized; for this purpose, preparations with a content of lactic acid, lacto and bifidobacteria are prescribed (Lactogel, Femilex, etc.).
Radio wave method
The method of radio waves is allowed without applying pressure on the tissue to process only the affected area without damaging healthy cells. With this method, there is no electric burn, since it is not a thermal effect, but evaporation of water molecules from the cells of the affected epithelial layer. The method has many positive aspects:
- non-traumatic technique with a special apparatus Surgitron,
- the neck is treated without scabs and scars, which significantly reduces the healing time,
- the form of the conizer allows you to fully preserve the structure of the cervix,
- adjacent tissue is not damaged.
The recovery process takes 3 to 5 weeks.
This method of treatment involves the burning of ectopia by high frequency electric current.
This is the most common and affordable method of treatment, although it causes severe discomfort and leaves large scars. It is for this reason that it is not carried out by the unborn.
If erosion is diagnosed in a woman and the doctor prescribes a cautery treatment, then during the procedure an electrode is touched to the wound surface, a burn occurs at this place, which becomes covered with a scab. Under this crust is a wound covered with healthy cells. For 2-3 months, the wound surface under the scab is tightened with cells of the squamous epithelium, and after complete healing, the scab disappears, revealing healthy tissue.
The effectiveness of this method is 93-98%.
This method is similar to the previous one, but in it “cauterization” is performed by the ultra-low temperatures of liquid nitrogen, which crystallizes water molecules in the affected epithelium cells, thus, their structure is disturbed. This method can cure erosion, but it should be remembered that the recovery period after cryodestruction is 8-10 days, and during this time a woman may experience watery discharge and pulling pain in the lower abdomen.
Immediately it should be noted that the effectiveness of treatment by folk methods has not been proven, therefore many gynecologists treat him rather skeptically. It is believed that traditional medicine can even aggravate the condition of patients with a similar diagnosis, therefore, using decoctions, infusions or homemade ointment, first consult with your doctor.
Often, gynecologists allow the use of "grandmother's" recipes in addition to the basic therapy to accelerate the healing of erosion.
Usually, in folk herbalists it is suggested to treat ectopia with tampons soaked in sea buckthorn oil, and to douche with tinctures of medicinal plants. Since sea buckthorn oil is hypoallergenic, it can be used for a long time and even during pregnancy. Such a tampon must be installed overnight, the course of treatment is 2 weeks.
For douching prepare a 2% solution of calendula, for this 1 hour lodges. Calendula diluted with a quarter cup of water. Syringe need 10 days in a row after each visit to the toilet.
Recently, the therapeutic and preventive phytoampons Clean Point and Beautiful Life have become very popular, they include medicinal plants that cleanse the affected area and relieve inflammation. Depending on the severity of the disease, you may need from 6 to 30 tampons.
How long does the treatment take?
The duration of treatment will depend on the tactic chosen by the specialist. For example, drug treatment lasts from a week to a month. The same period is assumed when using traditional medicine in the fight against erosion. The duration of the recovery period after surgical treatment averages from 3 to 5 weeks, but it can be delayed for 3 months.
Many women are interested in how much erosion therapy costs. There is no definite answer to this question, since everything depends on the severity of the disease and the scheme prescribed by the specialist. The cost of treatment is directly proportional to the effectiveness and painlessness of the chosen method.
The specific price for each type of operation is indicated in the relevant sections on the official websites of private clinics.
What is forbidden
Contraindications are standard for any gynecological disease:
- need to limit the consumption of fast food and synthetic products (sugary drinks, chips, snacks - everything that has dyes and preservatives),
- do not abuse alcohol
- need to get rid of addiction (smoking, drugs),
- Do not use saunas, baths,
- it is necessary to abandon the use of such a sports projectile as a hoop for torsion, especially with weighting, it provokes blood flow and heavy bleeding,
- You should not do bodybuilding and any exercise with great physical exertion.
These prohibitions concern not only women suffering from this pathology, but also those who want to prevent its development.
Contagion or not
Many women have concerns that they may pass an ectopia to a partner during sexual intercourse. Thematic forums constantly discuss the question of whether erosion is transmitted to a man during sex. Answer: definitely "no."
Cervical erosion is a wound, like any other wound surface, it cannot move to another person from the wearer, but a woman can infect with infection and other pathologies that develop on the background of ectopia. She herself also becomes more susceptible to infection from a partner, therefore in any case it is necessary to use condoms during sex, to protect the health of both sexes.
Can I go by myself?
Many patients are interested in whether erosion can pass by itself. The probability of such an outcome should be checked with your gynecologist. Such a chance is in the following cases:
- if the disease is diagnosed before the age of 21, it is self-curing in 80% of cases. If there are no provoking factors and associated diseases, then by the age of 22-23 the disease will recede,
- If ectopia occurs during pregnancy, the cause of its occurrence is most often an increase in the level of the progestogen. At this time, the pathology should not be treated, everything will return to normal after the stabilization of the hormonal background, when the child is born,
- erosion may be the body's response to oral contraceptives. The condition of the cervix will return to normal after a couple of months after discontinuation of drugs,
- if true erosion occurs due to injury, then it will heal itself, provided that the wound area is small.
If the gynecologist strongly recommends the use of treatment, refuse and delay it is not worth it.
True erosion is an open wound surface resulting from injury or inflammation. Externally, it looks like red spots on the surface of the uterine cervix. If you eliminate all the reasons for which it arose, then true erosion may well disappear after some time independently, especially in the case of a traumatic pathology obtained during an abortion or any other surgical procedure. The healing process takes about a few weeks, but it can only be cured in 50% of cases on its own.
Pseudoerosis is a disorder in the development of the epithelial layer during the healing of true erosion. It can be triggered by the effects of progesterone. The epithelium of pseudo-erosion has a granular structure and a bright red color, while the affected area can have completely different shapes.
If such a diagnosis is made to very young girls, then the waiting tactic is chosen in the treatment because in most cases by 23-24 years the pseudo-erosion passes on its own.
The same condition may occur during pregnancy due to an increase in progesterone levels, in this situation, the pathology should disappear a few months after the birth of the baby.
Contraceptive pills can also provoke the development of ectopia. After their cancellation, the condition of the cervical mucosa usually returns to normal.
Ectropion is a condition in which the mucous surface of the uterine cervix is inverted in reverse. The main symptom is the development of the inflammatory process. Since there is inflammation in this disease, accompanied by whites, pain, and menstrual disorders, it is not necessary to say that it can go away by itself.
Pathology is subject to compulsory treatment and does not pass on its own.
The treatment regimen is selected individually and depends on the general condition of the patient, her age and the results of the examination. After medical or surgical treatment of such a woman is recommended annually colposcopy.
Inflammatory erosion occurs due to infectious factors, which in some cases can be quite aggressive. Due to infections, not only local inflammation can arise, but also tissue necrosis, which, as a result of their rejection, forms the wound surface of erosion.A sign of this form of the disease is redness, swelling, the release of blood and pus from the genital tract. This form of the disease will not go away without treatment on its own. Often the situation is complicated by reduced immunity, due to which the body is not able to cope with inflammatory agents. In this case, it is obligatory to take antibiotics, immunostimulants and other drugs aimed at combating the causes of the disease and erosion itself.
Attention: Live erosion photos are not very pleasant, but we still provided them in our material to make it more complete and those who wanted to know what the pathology looks like in real form can see them. Mentally unstable not to watch!
The following types of cervical erosion are distinguished: true, false erosion (pseudo-erosion) and congenital.
The true form is formed as a response to the impact of adverse factors. Most often, these are mechanical injuries, in particular, damage by bullet forceps during medical abortion or diagnostic curettage.
As a result of injury, the integrity of the mucous membrane is disturbed and inflammation develops. In most cases, true erosion is determined on the lower lip of the vaginal segment of the uterus. The region changes its physiological form and acquires a rich red color. Pathology is characterized by bleeding.
False (pseudo-erosion, ectopia)
False erosion from the true differs in its origin. The disease is accompanied by the elimination of the cylindrical epithelium lining the inner surface of the cervical canal beyond the outer os.
Ectopia occurs in approximately 40% of women seeking gynecological care. In the absence of a secondary infection, it does not cause any inconvenience.
In the case of a complication, the patient develops characteristic symptoms:
- strong vaginal whites,
- pain in the lower abdomen (projection area of the uterus),
- spotting after sexual contact.
There are separate types of pseudo-erosion:
- follicular (glandular) - characterized by cystic formations and visually distinguishable glandular passages,
- papillary - characterized by the presence of growths in the form of papillae, symptoms of inflammation,
- mixed (glandular-papillary) - proceeds concurrently, accompanied by signs of both ectopic subtypes.
Congenital erosion in gynecology occurs infrequently. It is characterized by a shift of the zone of the cylindrical epithelium beyond the cervical canal.
At the same time, the causes and treatment of the disease differ from the true form and ectopia. Pathology is formed in the period of prenatal development.
Congenital cervical erosion can be diagnosed in childhood and adolescence. Prone to self-healing.
The true causes of cervical erosion are not known. There are several theories about the disease. It:
- inflammation. Quite often, mucosal damage is formed on the background of endocervicitis, which is accompanied by increased secretion of the cervical epithelium,
- injury. Aggressive sex, abortion, childbirth,
- sexually transmitted infections. The appearance of erosion can cause HPV, genital herpes, chlamydia, Candida fungus, gonococci, Trichomonas,
- early sexual debut
- menstrual irregularities due to hormonal abnormalities.
The reason for the development of pathology can become a decrease in immune protection.
Symptoms of the disease
Symptoms of erosion are quite specific. Pathology is manifested by pain during sex followed by bloody discharge. A small daub also occurs after exercise and lifting heavy objects. Such discharge can appear on any day of the menstrual cycle and have nothing to do with menstruation.
If the disease is complicated by the accession of a secondary infection, then the woman forms additional symptoms. The clinical picture is as follows:
- abundant whites of greenish or yellowish color with an unpleasant odor,
- pains in the lower back and lower abdomen,
- discomfort when urinating and frequent urging to the toilet.
Malignant erosion is recognized as the initial stage of cervical cancer. Its difference is uneven elevation over the mucous tissues and the presence of the border groove separating the neoplasm from healthy cells. With an initial degree, the symptoms of the pathology do not differ from the classical course of the disease. Persistent pains of varying intensity appear in the later stages.
Greater erosion is diagnosed in an extensive lesion area: over 60% of the mucosal surface. In this case, the symptoms of the disease are more pronounced.
Required laboratory tests
Determination of erosion also requires laboratory testing. Women are assigned the following tests:
- smear on microflora,
- tests for urogenital infections, HIV, syphilis, hepatitis,
- cytological examination.
If necessary, a biopsy is performed.
If we talk about how to treat erosion, then the basis of modern methods is the destruction of pathological cells, their subsequent rejection and restoration.
Conservative treatment of erosion is the admission of various groups of drugs - antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal - contributing to the elimination of the disease, the consequence of which was erosion. Additionally, immunostimulants and hormonal agents are prescribed if the pathology is caused by a background disturbance.
Erosion removal is surgically prescribed if conservative methods do not bring the expected therapeutic result.
The removal of cervical erosion is surgically performed in various ways. The most commonly used are:
- laser vaporization,
- radio wave knife.
If we consider how to remove erosion by cryodestruction, then in this case liquid nitrogen is used. After treatment, the affected cervical tissue is necrotized and subsequently rejected. For healing and the formation of new cells takes from 16 to 40 days. The term depends on the size of the erosion.
The disadvantage of cryodestruction is the inability to control the effects of nitrogen, so the substance can penetrate to a depth of 5 mm. A complication in this case is the narrowing of the cervical canal.
During laser vaporization a medical laser is used. The advantages of the technique include:
- control of the total area and depth of processing, which completely eliminates damage to the neck,
- no bleeding and inflammation.
But the process itself is very painful and requires giving anesthesia. In addition, the technique is quite expensive.
Radio wave surgery is a completely controlled excision of the inflamed mucosa without direct interaction with the epithelium. Under the influence of radiated thermal energy, the destruction of the affected cells and their subsequent evaporation.
The advantages of using a radio knife are:
- the almost complete absence of pain during the procedure and during the recovery period, which is caused by cauterization of the nerve endings,
- bactericidal effect
- wound healing without scar formation.
The technique is widely used in the treatment of unborn women.
Erosion after treatment, provided that all recommendations of the doctor are followed, heals fairly quickly. But in the absence of adequate medical care, the disease becomes chronic, which can lead to the development of serious diseases of the uterus.
Pseudo-erosion is not a serious threat to women's health. But in the case of the emergence of favorable factors, ectopia can pass from the false into the true form.
Complications in chronic erosion may be as follows:
- cervical dysplasia - a malignant tumor is diagnosed during the development of the fourth degree,
- appearance of uncharacteristic cellular structures.
Launched erosion can cause complications such as:
- endometritis - a disease of the uterus, accompanied by inflammation of the inner mucous layer,
- myometritis - a pathological process that develops in the muscular layer of an organ,
- endomyometritis - combined inflammation of the lining endometrial and muscular layer of the uterus,
- salpingitis - inflammation of the fallopian tubes,
- oophoritis - damage to the ovaries,
- adnexitis - combined inflammation of the fallopian tubes and ovaries,
- pelvioperitonit - inflammation of the peritoneum of the pelvic region.
An untreated disease can provoke an early cervical opening in pregnant women. Such a state threatens spontaneous cessation of gestation or the onset of premature labor.
Cervical erosion is a frequently diagnosed gynecological pathology. The lack of adequate treatment and the transition to the chronic form of the process can cause serious health problems. That is why women are recommended to visit a gynecologist at least twice a year.
Types of cervical erosion
Erosion of the cervix is called any violation of the normal state of its mucous membranes. Such violations may include mechanical or chemical damage, as well as abnormal development of mucosal epithelium. To denote pathologies of development, modern medicine has identified a separate term - cervical ectopia, although many doctors still call them erosions. By the nature and causes of erosion belong to two main groups:
- ectopia or pseudo-erosion.
In addition, the classification of true erosion can be clarified and their features:
- Ectropion is called the displacement of the cervical inner tissue outwards and forwards as a result of strong mechanical pressure, as a rule, occurring during heavy labor or late abortions,
- Endometriosis is called vertical displacement and the imposition of a different genetically-based tissue type of mucous surfaces of the cavity and cervix,
- Leukoplakia is called ossification and hardening of multilayered epithelium on any part of the mucous membrane,
- Polyps of the cervical canal and cervix and viral warts are considered to be a separate group of erosions.
Ectopia of the cervix or pseudo-erosion
The exclusion of this term from the official list of diseases speaks for itself: ectopia is not a disease. Such a diagnosis is made to women who have emerged from adolescence, if the separation of different types of uterine epithelium has not occurred naturally. The normal structure of the mucous membranes involves the separation of zones of single-layer epithelium, which covers the surface of the uterine canal, and the multi-layered, which is lined with the vaginal region of the cervix. In different age periods, the border zone of these areas is located on different parts of the uterine system, but their imposition is not typical, and this violation is called pseudo-erosion, because when viewed unusual for the smooth, pale pink vaginal epithelium, foreign tissue may be mistaken for damage to the mucosal layer . The danger of such a deviation of the structure causes only in the case of the development of the inflammatory process, provoked by other factors, in their absence, the woman most often does not know about the pathology due to the lack of symptoms.
Often this pathology is innate and does not affect the normal sex life, pregnancy and childbirth, which suggests that it is the variability of the development of the female reproductive system. After assessing the state of the surfaces and making sure that there is no risk of tissue degeneration or the development of inflammatory processes, the gynecologist can completely refuse the appointment of any treatment, recommending only regular observation. But this particular must be remembered for parents of girls, confident that all the problems of the reproductive system begin only with the beginning of intimate life, and the first visit to the gynecological office can be postponed until this period. Congenital erosion can cause inconvenience even in the period of the appearance of the first menses, as well as the true one that has arisen as a result of a sexually transmitted infection.
True cervical erosion
The essence of the erosion process is most clearly indicated by the translation itself of this concept - “corrosive” or “destruction”. Any rejection of uterine mucous membrane cells detected during a gynecological examination, a preliminary diagnosis refers to erosion. A brightly colored spot, which differs from the general background of the inner surface, is a reason for the appointment of a detailed survey.
Symptoms of cervical erosion
Erosion of the cervix of a particular type is present in every second woman - this is a proven fact. The most common misconception is the opinion that erosion is not determined by anything other than laboratory tests or gynecological examination. In fact, with careful attention to the body, signs of true erosion are not so difficult to notice:
- vaginal discharge with brown or yellowish patches that do not coincide with the menstrual cycle,
- pain during intercourse, unusual dryness or discomfort,
- burning, pain, itching when urinating.
Bacteriological analysis, conducted by the employee of the women's clinic, is one of the most popular diagnostic methods due to the availability and lack of need for complex equipment. The study is conducted visually with a microscope. The same factor is also negative, since the accuracy of the study depends too much on the competence of the employee conducting the test taken from the smear vagina. The purpose of the study is to count the number of leukocytes in the volume of the medium, to determine the presence of fungi and infectious agents. Such a preliminary analysis, although not directly related to erosion itself, is necessary, since the use of many drugs prescribed to a patient can provoke concomitant erosion or even its processes. In the case of determining candidiasis, vaginosis and other bacterial diseases, the selection of the form and treatment of erosion is carried out with their account.
Cytological analysis is a study that is recommended to be performed annually by any woman who does not even notice any ailments in her condition. This is a study of cells, conducted on the basis of an extensive scraping from several parts of the cervix, which gives a clear picture of all the processes occurring in the tissues at the cellular level. The result of the study will be the identification of cells with an altered state or their non-detection. The basis for referral for additional examination will be only the first conclusion, since cytological analysis, like all methods of visual research, significantly depends on the quality of the tissue sampling for research. The absence of a violation of the structure of cells in this sample can only indicate the purity of one site, and not the state as a whole. On the other hand, deviations from normal development identified in the course of this study are a significant basis for further analyzes, since it indicates changes in the cell structure, which may be a sign of tissue degeneration into poor quality ones.
Extensive calposcopic examination
Calposcopy is another visual examination, but with the help of a modern microscope and with the use of chemical reagents. The purpose of this study is to clarify the presence of erosion-altered cells and the boundaries of their localization. The solutions used in this study change color depending on the structure of the medium on which they are applied, which allows the doctor to draw up a detailed picture of the pathological processes occurring on the mucous membrane. There are two main solutions used: acetic acid at a concentration of 3% and Lugol solution containing iodine. Both solutions, despite the seemingly caustic composition, are safe. A rather lengthy procedure, in which a doctor examines all suspicious areas in detail using a mirror, causes discomfort only if there are injuries or ulcers on the surface of the walls of the uterus. In this case, the patient will experience a slight burning sensation. It is the result of calposcopic examination that is considered essential for making an accurate diagnosis of the presence of a foreign abnormal inflammatory or neoplastic formation.
Examination of a tissue sample taken from a part of the cervix uterus or cavity that seemed suspicious from the inside. A biopsy of the cervix is often supplemented with colposcopy, when the doctor deliberately picks up the modified area for examination. Under the control of the endoscope, during hysteroscopy, an absolutely painless micro-operation is performed on removing a certain number of living cells from the uterus for detailed research. The appointment of a biopsy should not be frightening, since doctors often prescribe this type of research as a safety net to determine the exact structure of the site damaged by erosion.
This analysis is considered to be the last in a series of examinations of a patient with suspected cervical cancer; it is based on its results that the final diagnosis is made and a treatment map is drawn up. The main stages of histology are fences of the material and their subsequent study using a number of specially prepared substances. The results of the histological study allow not only to understand the current cell structure, but also to determine the reasons for their degeneration, to describe the future development and most accurately draw up instructions for counteracting the processes of modification of the structure, if it is found to be negative. A complete histological examination in the laboratory takes up to two weeks, so doctors warn of possible frauds by one-day clinics offering to perform such work within 24 hours.
Cervical erosion and pregnancy
The presence of erosion does not mean that a woman will not become a mother. Naturally, like any damage to the organs of the genitourinary system, erosion is the object of close observation by the gynecologist. Depending on the type of erosion, its size and location, treatment can be prescribed both before and after pregnancy. Doctors warn that a planned pregnancy with a preliminary examination for all types of problems and their cure before conception increases the likelihood of a successful pregnancy and the birth of a healthy baby.
Traditional methods of treating erosion to help traditional medicine
Self-treatment of large true cervical erosion is impossible, it requires mandatory medical intervention, removal and control with the help of modern technology. All methods of traditional medicine are only prophylactic or auxiliary, for example, in cases where operations are postponed for objective reasons. But the use of folk remedies repeatedly reduces the risk of erosion.
Sea buckthorn oil as a tampon impregnation has good anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties and prevents the further spread of the area prone to erosion.
- Infusion of calendula is used for vaginal douching in cases of congenital erosion and mechanical damage to the mucous membrane. The tool is the prevention of many STDs.
- Oriental medicine actively recommends for the healing of all types of wounds, including on the inner planes of the vagina and cervix, mummy. The tool is used as an impregnation for tampons or cauterization of the affected areas, if they have access.
- Alcoholic tincture of peony dodging is taken both by mouth for a teaspoon 3-4 times a day, and externally. For douching and cauterization, dilute 1/25 with warm boiled water.
- Aloe-based recipes have long been known for their healing properties. To create a solution for the impregnation of tampons, the juice of the plant is mixed in equal proportions with castor oil and honey. The tampon is used at night, the warming sensations for this method are normal.
The basis for the prevention of any disease of the female genital area is a regular visit to the gynecologist, at least once a year and the observance of the main rules of sexual culture, one sexual partner and the use of protective methods of contraception.
What is false and true cervical erosion?
Doctors divide all cervical erosion into true and false (pseudo-erosion). With a false erosion of the neck around the external pharynx, a red rim is visible, which is nothing more than a normal cylindrical epithelium that is present in the cervical canal.
In contrast to the stratified squamous epithelium covering the neck, the cylindrical epithelium has a bright red color. In the case of protrusion of a part of the cervical canal, the very rim called pseudo-erosion becomes visible. Such erosion does not require treatment and is the physiological norm, occurring mainly in women who have given birth.
In true erosion, small ulcers are visible on the outer surface of the cervix, which have a red color, indistinct boundaries and shape. In order not to confuse readers, we will no longer talk about pseudo-erosion, but talk about true erosion, its symptoms, causes and treatment.
How to make an accurate diagnosis?
An accurate diagnosis is not made solely on the basis of a woman’s examination. For the differential diagnosis of false and true erosion is used the instrumental form of diagnosis - colposcopy. A colposcope is an optical medical device that allows you to view the affected area of the cervix with a magnification of 25-30 times.
The duration of the examination, which is carried out on the gynecological chair, is about 20 minutes, and does not cause any pain or discomfort. If you find deep lesions, the doctor may prescribe a biopsy of a piece of tissue that is performed 5-7 days after the onset of menstruation.
In addition to colposcopy, the doctor may conduct the following studies:
- Smear analysis for bacterial flora and cytology smear.
- Analysis of hormonal levels.
- General urine and blood tests.
- Ultrasound of the genitals.
Traditional methods of treatment of cervical erosion
Folk remedies can be used in treatment, but they are not recommended to be used separately, since the action of many herbal remedies has not been fully studied. Herbal ingredients can be used as additional treatment methods for medical methods. The most commonly used components are sea buckthorn oil, mummy, calendula, chamomile, St. John's wort, honey (if there is no allergy).
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